Pseudoscience & Religion

Genetics behind Gotra System – Not Really!

Folks at Sanskriti magazine have written an article on the relationship between modern science of genetics and the Hindu Gotra system. The article has too many logical inconsistencies and factual errors, which I would like to discuss.

The crux of the argument is this: Ancient Rishis prohibited marriage within the same gotra to prevent inbreeding, which is known to cause diseases due to accumulation of recessive forms (alleles) of a gene. However, there are several problems with this argument.

Male Chromosomes (Y highlighted)

Male Chromosomes (Y highlighted)

Firstly, let’s look at the religious side of things. Gotras were set up by Brahmins, and all brahmins were identified by being descendants of 8 rishis – so 8 gotras were established. Marriage between people of same Gotra is prohibited. Gotras can be assigned to adopted sons and disciples of a rishi. Gotras are passed only from Father to son, hence the tradition of transferring the last name in case of son but not daughter. In some societies (e.g. Malayalis and Tulus), Gotras are passed from mothers to their children. So far, so good.

Now let’s look at the genetics argument before we move to point out the fallacies. The author points out that the reason behind this tradition is the perpetuation of Y chromosome. Y chromosome is passed only from father to son, so technically, a man of a particular gotra can trace his lineage to that particular rishi. That is the reason why a man keeps his family’s gotra while a woman who does not share the Y chromosome (since they have XX sex chromosomes) does not. Finally, the tradition to prohibit the marriage between people belonging to same gotra is set up in this way to prevent disease which may arise due to accumulation of recessive alleles of various genes.

Alright, let’s get down to pointing out the errors in the article.

  1. Since gotras can be assigned to disciples and adopted sons of a rishi, the whole theory of Y chromosome lineage and inbreeding avoidance falls apart. Same applies to cases where the mothers are assigning the gotras (Malayalis and Tulus).
  2. The argument about preventing inbreeding is a broad and incorrect simplification. Recent research into populations which have inbred over several decades due to geographical or other limitations (e.g., Iceland) have revealed a complicated relationship between inbreeding and health. Some studies have found that it increases instances of diseases (e.g., in middle east) whereas others have paradoxically found that it sometimes leads to increase in fertility [1].
  3. I am not sure what the author wanted to get out of linking the evolution and gene loss in Y chromosome with the gotra system. There is just no connection between these two concepts whatsoever! Also, as several recent research papers have shown, the perpetual loss of genes in Y chromosomes and its imminent extinction is a myth [2,3]. So, rest assured, Y chromosome is not going anywhere.
  4. The author states that “Ancient Vedic Rishis created the Gotra system… in a bid to prevent inbreeding and completely eliminate all recessive defective genes from the human DNA”. Exogamy (marriage outside social group, or in this case, gotra) will NOT be able to eliminate the recessive alleles. It will only make it less likely that a person has two copies of a defective allele. This is a misunderstanding of one of the fundamental concepts of genetics.
  5. The article does not delineate the genetic diversity or lineage of the original rishis, although I doubt the veracity of this whole story due to lack of evidence.
  6. The concepts of genetics have been discovered relatively recently, starting with the experiments of Gregor Mendel in 19th century. To say that ancient rishis devised this system of gotras based on science of genetics is quite presumptuous. Like it or not, ancient rishis had no clue about genes, recessive alleles, Y chromosomes or even the most rudimentary concepts of modern genetics.

The fact is that the folks in the vedic ages (roughly 3000 BCE) devised a patriarchal system based on rights of sons to family name and property. Also, incest taboo, which is an integral part of several cultures, probably played a role in setting the system of gotras. The taboo is almost universal in human cultures. Both these factors, patriarchy and incest taboo, along with misogyny, combined to form this archaic system of gotra which actually has no sound cultural or scientific basis. The attempt by folks at Sanskriti magazine to link this to genetics is an exercise in futility. It is time we stop putting the facade of modernity and science on these anachronisms and justifying them by using scientific means.


  1. Helgason, A.; Palsson, S.; Guthbjartsson, D. F.; Kristjansson, t.; Stefansson, K. (2008). An Association Between the Kinship and Fertility of Human Couples. Science 319 (5864): 813–6.
  2. Bellott, D. W. et al. Mammalian Y chromosomes retain widely expressed dosage-sensitive regulators. Nature 508, 494–499 (2014).
  3. Cortez, D. et al. Origins and functional evolution of Y chromosomes across mammals. Nature 508, 488–493 (2014).

About the author

Rupinder Sayal

Rupinder holds a doctorate in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from Michigan State University, USA. In his spare time, he likes to read non-fiction books and watch movies.


  • Let us consider a boy and a girl of different families. Let us assume that the families ( or the two pairs of parents of the boy and the girl) are not related through a wedlock for a couple of generations but are of same gothra. The boy has a Y chromosome which is a lineage from that particular gothra ,where as the girl does not have the trademark Y chromosome but two X chromosomes which are far different from the X chromosome of the boy. In this scenario , isn’t the marriage between the boy and the girl genetically safe/non-compromised? Why should there be objection from genetic angle for marriages from same gothra?
    I hope some one with a knowledge of genetics would enlighten me..

  • Can you please give the reference for your statement – “The fact is that the folks in the vedic ages (roughly 3000 BCE) devised a patriarchal system based on rights of sons to family name and property. Also, incest taboo, which is an integral part of several cultures, probably played a role in setting the system of gotras. The taboo is almost universal in human cultures.”

  • There are some flaws in your arguments, in my view. It should be noted that im neither endorsing nor refuting the gotra system.

    a) There are hundreds of Gotras;not just 8, as far as I know.

    b) Even if selecting couples from different gotras did raise the fertility in some cases, the higher prevalence of diseases by not doing so is a far greater problem, and should not be overlooked. (I mean they were probably right in doing so)


  • Hi krishna,

    The statement is a mix of several facts. Here they are:

    1. Vedic ages – actually, the age should be around 1700-900 BCE, as it was during this time that Vedas and Upanishads were composed.
    See India: A history by John Keay.

    2. Patriarchal system – I said that because women are not (for the most part) allowed to share the gotra, and were not leaders of the family.
    See Singh, Upinder (2008), A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education India, ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0

    3. Universality of Incest taboos – See “Human Universals” by Donald E. Brown, 1991.
    See here:

  • Hi Bharadwaja,

    As I said in the article, the reality is way more complicated. And yes, you are right in your assertion, and that would be true if Y chromosome was all that mattered in determining inheritance of traits. But sadly, it is not. The compatibility or incompatibility of genes is determined by the sum total of all the alleles on all the chromosomes of the gametes of parents. That makes it pretty tough to figure out the incompatibility. If this were as easy as avoiding same-gotra marriage, we would not have any inherited diseases at all in Hindus.

  • Hi AB,

    1. The “8 gotras” statement does not come from me. I am just quoting from the article in Sanskriti magazine. I’m not an expert on gotras, so can’t comment on how many gotras are there.

    2. I brought up the case study on increase in fertility in an inbred population to highlight the fact that the genetics behind this is way too complicated, and effects have too many variables for any reliable prediction. Saying that they were probably right in doing so is the same as saying that I arrived home safely, so it must be due to my friend praying for me. Without “any” knowledge of the genetic diversity of these gotras, it is impossible to accurately predict effects on future generations. The best medicine and biological knowledge we had that time talked about 3 humors in our body, Vata, Pitta and Kafa. Just like the 4 humors of Greeks. So I have a hard time believing they knew about any “genetics”. However, they may have intuitively arrived at this system.

  • Dear Mr Rupinder,

    thanks for debunking this. its now flooding whatssapp group and i am glad that you took the trouble of writing this for us non-biologists to understand.

    you were absolutely right to say that not to put the facade of this modernity on the ancient culture. we can appreciate the practices and their advancement upto that period with their limited body of knowledge.

    we can also appreciate the growth of science which is helping us to understand the concept and the statistics that lie beneath it.

  • “Like it or not, ancient rishis had no clue about genes, recessive alleles, Y chromosomes or even the most rudimentary concepts of modern genetics.” That can’t be right. Given the record of discoveries (by pure thought alone, too) of ancient rishis and their associates in fields such as aerodynamics, missile technology, nuclear and sub-nuclear physics, astrophysics, cosmology, neuroscience and a whole host of other subjects, genetics ought to have been a cinch!

  • Dear V. Balakrishnan,

    With all due respect, can you provide some real evidence for any of these fields in this regard? Because honestly, all “evidence” I have seen so far is hokum.

    Also, evidence for advances in the fields of physics, neuroscience and others does not mean the rishis DID have knowledge of genetics. Expertise in one area can facilitate discoveries in others, but in no way it guarantees them.

    Your claim that rishis had knowledge of nuclear and sub-nuclear (!!) physics, missile technology is quite extraordinary. And you know what they say about extraordinary claims, right?

    “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.”

  • Can I marry a girl who has the same gotra as my mom’s gotra?

    Science behind gothra system: Gotra means cowshed (Go=Cow, tra=shed) in Sanskrit. Pāṇini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram (IV. 1. 162), which means “the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with th…

  • I have been trying to explain what you have said in this article.. but people just dont listen!!!

    How can Y become extinct by crossing over with an ‘X’!!

    The article was entirely illogical and you have provided a much better perspective to it

  • Wow !! now people are giving reference from the authors of foreign land who don’t understand our system . Well am just 21 so, I have not had that much knowledge as the author of this article , actually the point is people are too much educated to understand it .

  • There are always two opinions one in favor and one in opposition. I believe everything has a reason and we should concede it. It is up to you that you follow a system or not but you should not discredit it. I will try to convince you why.
    But before that 1. I concede that the Rishis might or might not know about genetics. we can discuss it later, it might also be by experience!!
    2. Will you marry your uncle’s (chacha, father’s brother) daughter just because you do not share a gene (same logic as given for same gotra)? Fact is you may!! but many people will consider it Morally wrong.
    Now here’s why you should not discredit gotra system:
    In gotra debate people opposing and defending it use the same term “genetically related”. For defense we know.. those who oppose say (as mention here also), that they are so far that it is impossible to have any relation. Anyone hearing it will say, true even I can not deny it. But lets go back a little.. What was population of India in 1950? 2 million!! Now imagine the population 5000 years back!! (or 1.5 lakh years back as claimed by certain texts as life of earth) It has to be (was) very less, right? So the social group we are talking about was very small and at that time marrying in same gotra in that group was not good morally (I think you will agree to it) and genetically. I say genetically because irrespective of knowledge of genes it is highly possible that the recessive gene problem which we now know and is proven by science was known by experience then, i.e. they suffered and observed that gotra system is a way to avoid it.
    FYI : I don’t know about others but in Kanyakbja Brahmin’s adopted sons and daughters keep their original gotra, if known. For disciples only non Brahmin get’s Rish’s gotra, Brahmin disciples keep their original gotra.

  • More opinions than facts.

    1) You cannot marry in your maternal grand mothers gotra as well
    2)All varna’s share gotras. You will have Markandeya gotra in Brahmins as well as Shudras that kind of kills the Varna inherited myths.

    Please research a little bit more and drink with a buddy over the facts ie. if you have buddies that not always agree to you.

  • Hi Rupinder,

    You do know that a marriage in India is not just based on Gotras correct ?
    Matching horoscopes is not an easy subject. The literature is not easily available online and is only passed down in certain ashramas and vedic libraries. I just wanted to put this out there in case you wanted to do more research. Please do email me if you have done research i would love to know more about it.


  • Anyone know why sisters brothers and other relations exist and why we are forbid to marry and have sex with them(brother sister uncle aunt etc)? Generations can continue by marrying anyone without considering any relation but why it is not ?Don’t say morality as an answer. I want a scientific reason. Those who oppose gotra system should think of the above…

  • You didn’t provide any reference regarding how Tulus and Malayalis have matrilineal line. In Kerala Nambudhiri Brahmins follow standard gotra like all other Brahmins. Same with Tulu brahmins. So please clarify.

  • It is not gothra system but another rule in Hinduism which is knowingly or unknowingly preventing inbreeding.

    Consanguineous marriage are those where the bride and groom share a grandparent or near ancestor. Hinduism forbids consanguineous marriage, and strongly recommends seven degrees of biological separation between bride and groom

    Srivas- I heard somewhere that following the 100 years was in 10th or 11th century, most Nair men were killed in battles, the Chera king requested Brahmin men to marry Nair women , to produce more children. Also from then on, among Nairs, Kshatriyas of Kerala and ambalavasi (temple chores caste) matrilineal system started. As you rightly pointed out Brahmins in kerala and tulu nad follow patrilineal system and gothra system similar to other Brahmins of India.

    Even Consanguineous marriage among Tamil Brahmins seems to be a corruption, because it is against Hindu law. marriage between cousins is popular among Nairs in kerala, but never part of Brahmins of Kerala or tulu nad.

    Again regarding adoption 99.99% cases, a boy of same gothra is preferred, because there is no need of special rituals. You can start right away with jatakarma and naming ceremony whereas in rarest of rarest cases where adopted child is of different gothra , a Dattu / Datta homa must be performed to legitimate it.

    Rupinder Sayal’s refutation to claims that ancient rishis were aware of genetics has lot of errors in it although I am not claiming that ancient rishis invented gothra system to avoid inbreeding

  • @ Rupinder Sayal
    Saying that the gotra system was devised 3000-4000 years ago and the discovery of genetics is very very new doesn’t prove anything. Its not an argument. Ancients had no knowledge of parabolic graphs or projectile motion while shooting arrows and this fact doesn’t make them untrue to claim to have practiced archery! I mean to say apples used to fall same way before Newton as well.
    I am not challenging you about the benefits of gotra system or its harms, biologically or socially. I am only saying that you are challenging the intent behind the gotra system on non-reasonable grounds. Patriarchy system would demand paternal lineage that’s fine but how does practicing incest creates problem in that? As long as society would prevent exogamy the ‘varna’ and ‘pitra’ system would have been preserved. Gotra system seems not to have bothered them.

  • Dear Rupinder,
    Great article.
    W.r.t Balakrishnan’s comment and your reply to it:

    Dear V. Balakrishnan,

    With all due respect, can you provide some real evidence for any of these fields in this regard? Because honestly, all “evidence” I have seen so far is hokum.

    I believe he(Balakrishnan) was being sarcastic.

  • Mr. Whoever u claim to be. For understanding anything Sanatan Hinduism, u need to be open to new ancient ideas and should learn to read actual texts. Your mind after studying in West has become too narrow to understand anything that is not western science. Lol, u guys call urself as free thinkers where there is no freethinking but bigoted only. Perfect example of Macaulayan education system.

  • Science behind same Gotra marriages

    Why are marriages in same Gotra prohibited?
    The marriages under same Gotra are forbidden due to the close connection of DNA among a boy and a girl if they belong to the same clan. People who have similar gotra are considered kith and kin and the rational given to avoid same-gotra-weddings is that genetic deformities may arise due to closeness of genes. But how true is this consensus? Is the whole hullaballoo behind same gotra marriages really worth it? Let’s look for some answers…

    What is Gotra?
    It is believed that the Gotra are descendents of ‘Saptarishi’, meaning 7 sages. The seven sages are Angirasa, Atri, Gautam, Kashyapa, Bhrigu, Vasistha, and Bharadwaja. As per the ancient beliefs, the classification of Gotra came into existence during the Vedic period. This custom was established to avoid marriages between blood relatives, and thus established strict rules to determine who can marry which lineages.

    The Risk
    As per various scientific researches available over the internet, marriage between blood relatives can lead to abnormal offspring due to genetic mismatch and hybrid DNA combinations. The Gotra system was defined around 4th century BCE to accommodate changed social rules and laws. With the passage of time, this system became an important parameter for finalizing a wedding, and is now a well-established system even in the modern society.

    Uncomfortable questions
    There are several questions that need logical answers – The gotras were formed around 3000 to 4000 years ago and there are continuous marriages outside the gotra, so hasn’t dominance of genes reduced over the ages? What is the basis to prevent marriages within the same Gotras even after thousands of years later the roots separated?

    Famous theory behind the Gotra System
    Humans have 23 pairs of Chromosomes and in each pair one Chromosome comes from the father and the other comes from the mother. So, there are 46 Chromosomes in every cell. Of these 23 pairs, there is one pair called the Sex Chromosomes which decide the gender of the person. If the resultant cell has XX sex chromosomes then the child will be a girl and if it is XY then the child will be a boy.

    The X and the Y
    It is a known biological fact that only men have Y Chromosomes. So a son always gets his Y Chromosome from his father and the X Chromosome from his mother. But, daughters always get their X Chromosomes, one each from both father and mother. So the Y chromosome is always preserved throughout a male lineage (Father -Son-Grandson) while the X chromosome is NOT preserved in the female lineage (Mother-Daughter-Grand Daughter) because it comes from the parents.

    Y chromosome and the Vedic Gotra System
    So, Y chromosome is passed down only between the men in a lineage; women have nothing to do with it. Hence, Y chromosome plays a vital role in modern genetics by ruling out the ancestry of a person. The Gotra system was established to trace the roots of a person easily. For example, if a person belongs to Atri Gotra, it means his Y chromosome came all the way down over thousands of years from Rishi Atri. Mind-boggling! Isn’t it?

    Achilles’ heel of the Y chromosome
    The Y chromosome is the only one which does not have a matching pair in the human body. This crucial chromosome which is essential for the creation and evolution of males has a weakness – refusal to be a part of the normal process of development by means of chromosomal mix and match to create better versions in every successive generation. This limitation might lead to the extinction of Y chromosome altogether over the next few million years.

    The threat
    It is not known whether any other Chromosome in the 23 pairs will be able to take over the role of the Y chromosome. Does that mean extinction of the male population? In addition, it is believed that throughout evolution the size of the Y chromosome has been decreasing and it has lost most of its genes. Same Gotra marriages result in genetic defects and to protect the male lineage, prohibition of same Gotra marriages happened.

    A study on this issue
    A study on this issue, led by scientists at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad together with US researchers at Harvard Medical School, the Harvard School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT was published in the September 24th issue of Nature. This study supports in a way the argument of those who are opposing the marriages within the same Gotra.

    Gene-specific diseases
    If two docile genes, one from mother and the other from father, happen to join then the manifestation of single gene-specific disease is sure. So far more than 1,000 such diseases have been identified and include: cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, retinoblastoma, albinism, sickle-cell anemia, thalassemia, Tay-Sachs disease, autism, growth hormone deficiency, adenosine deaminase deficiency, and juvenile muscular dystrophy.

    Findings of the study
    Traditionally in Hindu society marriages do take place within the caste but marriages within Gotra (further sub-division of caste) is avoided. The study mentioned above is being cited now as the scientific basis to oppose marriages within the Gotra. If marriages take place within the same Gotra then the risk of Recessive Gene Disorder becomes higher. But it does not mean every such couple will give birth to a baby with the Recessive Gene Disorder.

    Quoting the researchers
    The study declares, “Allele frequency differences between groups in India are larger than in Europe, reflecting strong founder effects whose signatures have been maintained for thousands of years owing to endogamy (marriage within the caste). We therefore predict that there will be an excess of recessive diseases in India.” Haldane wrote decades ago that ‘‘if inter-caste marriages in India become common, various… recessive characters will become rarer’’ that means only Indians will have that disease.

    Evident holes in the theory
    Sometimes back there was an article which reported that there are more occurrence of genetic defects in kids in communities that allow close relatives to marry. If that was the case then Muslims, who permit marriage between cousins, should have suffered serious genetic disorders. And by now they should be a genetically infected lot. But is that the case? I don’t think so.

    Another theory
    Debunking the previously explained logic behind the establishment of Gotra system, M. V. Anjaneyalu, states that “Intra-clan marriages were banned not because of brother-sister relations. They were banned in order to augment society of their ilk. For example, if marriages are allowed within the Bharadwaja gotra, the followers of Bharadwaja will become limited. If a bride is picked up from another gotra, she will become a new member of the followers of Bharadwaja, thereby increasing the number of the followers.”

    It was never about our ancestors?
    As per M. V. Anjaneyalu, “the Gotra has its origin not in the birth of people but derives from the gurus they followed. For example, families belonging to the Bharadwaja gotra are the followers of sage Bharadwaja. But it does not necessarily mean that all its members belong to the same family. Different families in the same caste might have followed Bharadwaja; hence they acquired the name of Bharadwaja gotra. If this argument is to be believed, the whole concept of Gotra marriages becomes phony.

    Tracing the roots of the taboo
    The Delhi High Court and the Punjab and Haryana High Court have rejected the petitions demanding ban between the same Gotra marriages. Many scholars claim that biologically and genetically speaking, beyond one degree of separation, there is no health impact on the progeny of a marriage even between a man and woman who are related to each other. So is the taboo mainly societal and cultural, not medical? Leave the decision to science.

    A disclaimer
    This article is simply an endeavor to explore the logic behind the origins of the olden Gotra System and in no way advocates or refutes it. Nonetheless, the best method to verify the genetic feasibility of a marriage is by getting a DNA compatibility test done to ensure that there is no possibility of genetic disorders in future generations.



    Nearly three and a half decades ago, I was in Mumbai doing my Mate’s exams. While walking down to a nearby restaurant with my friend for lunch , we came across a purse full of money lying on the street.

    Since it was a Sunday, the street was fairly deserted. Pretty soon a guy came from the opposite direction , and it appeared that he was indeed searching frantically for his purse, his eyes darting here and there on the ground.

    So we asked him “ Have you lost something?”

    He said ” Yes, my purse is missing from my back pocket”

    Immediately a Bawajee ( an old Parsee gentleman ) within earshot started imploring at the top of his voice “ Maine nahi liya! Maine nahi liya!—Mai—“ in a shrill squeaky voice.

    I took out the purse and gave it to the rightful owner and then all the three of us tried to convince the Bawajee , that the purse is indeed found, and that nobody has accused him of stealing it.

    To be frank, we spent the next 5 minutes calming this hyper venting old man, that he is NOT involved at all, the purse has been found and all is fine..

    For a minute we thought he would collapse and die, and then we would be charged for man slaughter, if we were NOT lynched by a mob . The sentiment on the street would be ” Aree bhaiya, bichara Bawajee ko kyun tangh kiya?”

    For everybody in India knows of the Parsi inbreeding genetic brith defect problem , which rears its ugly head once they have crossed 40. Till the age of 25, the Parsi girls are so lovely and the men firm limbed and level headed.

    This episode shook us so badly that we decided to have a chilled beer. My friend could NOT help giggling , and asked me if the old guy was mad.

    I told him “ It was just his Y chromosome playing up”

    To put it in layman’s language “same gotra marriages” within a VERY SMALL community.

    Parsis , a small community which migrated from Iran to India in 950 AD , are guilty of marrying within themselves. They marry their close relatives . If they marry outside they are ex-communicated and they lose their free perks from their trust having deep pockets.

    A portion of what I told him 3.5 decades ago , will now be reproduced in this post.

    Now I want you to punch into Google search CHARLES DARWIN AND HIS APPLE- and get introduced to a stupid IDIOT of the first order.

    In recent past , brown noser Hindu ministers ( to curry favour with a Hindu hating WTE—waitress turned empress , ) have found it necessary to condemn all Indian traditional systems like Gotra system as nonsense.

    These same ministers would declare in parliament that Gotra system, Hindu horoscopes and Astrology is all nonsense. But when it comes to their own daughters and sons , they have NOT neglected the Gotra and horoscope system .

    In my own case, my parents matched 77 horoscopes , before the 78th horoscope ( of my wife- lucky gal!! ) matched. I am from matrilineal Kerala where we do NOT have the Gotra system. So I don’t have an axe to grind, being a neutral person.

    But I will explain the amazing science behind this. This ancient Vedic science became clear only a few decades ago with progress in science in DNA research.

    It is amazing that 7000 years ago, the Vedic Maharishis, in all their wisdom knew of the Y chromosome. The Gotra system was designed to track down the root Y Chromosome of a person quite easily.

    Gotra means cowshed in Sanskrit. The Gotra system was started among Brahmins, which was a system to classify and identify the families in the community.

    When it comes to handing down Vedic knowledge verbally, from 9000 BC to 5000 BC, this is most important. The Vedas were written in 5000 BC.

    The Gotra are descents from ‘Saptarishi’, meaning 7 sages. The seven sages are Agastya, Angirasa, Atri, Kashyapa, Bhrigu, Vasistha, and Bharadwaja.

    Much later Kshatriyas and Vaishya’s jumped into this system, to be one up above the Shudras, and they subverted the Gotra requirements.

    This was induced by the British Christian invader – to alienate the vast majority of low caste Shudras and drive fissures into Hinduism with the assistance of false gods like BR Ambedkar and Periyar EV Ramaswamy , who declared that British rule is better than self rule..

    The issue of same Gotra marriages is a hot topic recently. Several organisations which includes Khap Panchayats of Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and U.P are demanding that Hindu Marriage Act should be amended to ban marriages between the same Gotra. Gujjars, Rajputs, Banias, Brahmins and Punjabis strongly opposes the same Gotra marriages

    India now has 1300 million people. Khap panchayats are raising this issue in a violent manner , to maintain their relevance and sustain their eroding supremacy. More than 250 Gotra chains have been explicitly listed.

    The Khaps are carried away by the visuals of their Murrah Buffalos. Murrah buffalo, the pride of Haryana is the result of hybridzation . Jet black in colour, sometimes with white markings on face or legs, these male bulls weigh 800 kilos of prime beef. The females give fantastic amounts of milk around 35 litres.

    We have Muslims and Christians keeping track of their Gotras . They want to claim superiority over lesser mortals in their new found religion, and have the best of both worlds. It is more of a social issue now.

    Some Buddhists to claim divine lineage and superiority, give unsolicited declarations of their Gowthama Gotra. Buddha, was a Hindu by the name of Siddhartha . His Y-chromosomes is from Rig-Vedic Rishi ‘Gowthama Rahoogana’. Selfishness propels them to claim all this. Buddha lived in 1900 BC. Considering 4 generations per century, a lot of water has flown down the Ganges. These people do NOT even know the birth and death dates of Buddha. They claim he was born in 563 BC, a date arbitrarily written by lying British historians over brandy and cigars.

    They claim that boys and girls of the same Gotra are like brothers and sisters and marriage between them can produce off springs with birth defects. The Delhi High Court, Punjab and Haryana High Courts have rejected the petitions demanding ban between the same Gotra marriages stating that there is no such provision in the statuette book.

    The pseudo Hindu ministers in the coterie of WTE non-believers have referred to ‘Gothra’ as archaic, unscientific, irrelevant and male chauvinistic!

    Oh yeah?

    Modern DNA science have seconded what our ancient seers have written down in all their wisdom.

    The white Christian invader and Rothschild have destroyed these texts in the quest to “divide and rule”. It was about making deep fissures in Hindu society. In India we have this great oral system down the line.

    Modern DNA and genetic research has confirmed male line Y chromosomal transference. In a widely publicized case , it was proved at great expense and time through 8 generations in case of Thomas Jefferson, the 3rd President of America and a founding father..

    ‘Gotra’ in basically Y-chromosomal identity. Thomas Jefferson’s had secret sex with a slave Sally Fleming who bore his children.

    For nearly 200 years, since US president Thomas Jefferson’s time, Americans who respected Jefferson wre in denial. They said , NO, he did not screw Sally–technically or non-technically.

    But the descendants of Sally claimed that they are the rightful progeny of the American founding father.
    So DNA science came to the rescue.

    The genetic DNA study of descendents of Jefferson family and Sally Fleming’s family, has confirmed that, US President Thomas Jefferson was indeed the father of at least one of the sons of Sally Fleming.

    Like how DNA science caught Bill Clinton with his pants down in the Monica Lewsinsky case.

    DNA geneticists used a scientific fact, that most of the male Y-chromosome is passed intact from father to son. Females do not carry the Y-chromosome. This truth known 7000 years ago to our Vedic seers, has been used to trace the paternal lineage, and catch Jefferson with his pants down, like Billy baby..

    Thomas Jefferson’s.

    Thomas Jefferson did not have surviving sons from his legal wife. But his paternal uncle’s male lineage is in tact to present time.. The genetic Y-chromosome of these persons (eight generations down from Thomas Jefferson’s paternal uncle) living at present time was used as the reference.

    This was compared with intact male line persons from (Five generations down from) Sally Fleming living presently. The geneticists used polymorph markers so that Y-chromosome can be distinguished by haplotypes.

    They found that Sally Fleming’s son Eston’s male line progeny had same haplotypes as Field Jefferson who was paternal uncle of Thomas Jefferson. Using other physical and living proximity factors, the geneticists have concluded that Eston Fleming was indeed the son of Thomas Jefferson and Sally Fleming.

    Like I said before in Kerala we do NOT have gotra system.

    If you want to know more about what happened in Kerala, punch into Google search THE WORST RACISTS ON PLANET EARTH.

    In a nut shell it is as flows.

    Lord Parashurama came down to Kerala with a bunch of Brahmins in 4000 BC, when the river Saraswati dried up. On the way some of them decided to settle down at river Zuari of Goa. Lord Parashurama was very pro-brahmin and he hated the warrior caste. He himself was a warrior saint.

    Ask anybody from Kerala “ Why did the creator of Kerala Parashurama throw his axe? “ – and if the guy or gal cannot answer this simple question then she or he is NOT a Malayali. The answer you will get is “ He threw his axe to reclaim land from the Arabian sea”.

    The real thing is he used his axe power to snatch the land off rightful owners and donate the whole plains of Kerala to Namoodiri Brahmins. Kerala is a very narrow strip of land between the sea and the Western Ghat mountain range.

    In those days Kerala had two clans. Malayyars , who lived on the mountains ( and are still there ) and Thirayyars who lived on the plains and did sea navigation.. Well the Thirayyars lost their lands.

    The patron saint of the Kerala Thirayyars is Rishi Therayar , the first disciple of Maharishi Agastya . Agastya , the greatest of the Sapt Rishis, also famous as the first of the Siddhas , who also founded the Kalari Payattu art of fighting.

    The Namboodiris wanted to keep this newly acquired land for themselves without giving it away. They created a bizarre social nay sex system to sustain this diabolical greed for land. They literally painted themselves into a corner. Today they are responsible for their own object condition and lack of numbers

    Only the eldest Namboodiri son would marry. Rest will just screw around with all the attractive women they see, called “SAMBANDHAM” (sexual liason ).

    Nair women themselves could NOT come within 6 feet ( man-length ) of a Namboodiri , as per the Namboodiri laws of untouchability ( ze bed is exempted TEE HEEEEE!) .

    All lower caste woman had to expose their breast in public, and the Nair watchdogs enforced it under fear of losing both breasts at the sharp edge of their swords.. All this is NOT allowed as per the Vedas, as the noble seers were NOT racists

    Later this type of sexual anarchy was more organized. Their offsprings with NIL claim to their father became a separate Kshatriya clan , called the Nair clan.

    This clan was inclusive of the current Menon, Nambiar, Pillai, Kurup, Adiyodi, Asan, Eradi, Kaimal, Kartha, Nayanar, Nayars, Menoki, Achan, Thampi, Vellodi, Panickar, Unnithan etc..

    They would carry swords all the time and take care of the feudal overlords with excess loyaly , to get a piece of the spoils. Namboodiris would now only attempt to have sex with their own home production – the Nair clan. The Nair clan of course between themselves.

    They created Kerala’s matriarchal system. Nair women were truly bohemian. While the Nair men went for the battles, all the ladies lived in their respective Tharavadu or ancestral bungalow. There would be a Karunavar guardian, a senior uncle who would stay with them ladies .

    There was no concept of marriage in the Nair clan. When a Nair man meets an woman who caught his beady eye he hands over a pudava (a cotton garment or mundu) and he is invited to her house. While the man spends the days in his own house, the night is spent with this lady in her house having sex. He left at dawn after a bath.

    The Nair man had zilch commitments to her and when he walks out, it’s up to ze lady if she wants to wait for him or find another suitor. If the same suitor returns after the battle, and finds another pair of footwear outside the house, then that means she has allowed a new man in.

    And he goes away with or without a heartache. This system brought full security to women as they called the shots and were never displaced from their houses. The man enters their life and exits at her sweet will. The man has to adopt to her ways and make life work according to her system or she will put her pretty foot down or connect it on his martial ass — sword or no sword.

    In South India where there is NO gotra, Hindu Hindu society allowed marriage to maternal uncle’s daughter, or paternal aunt’s daughter. But marriage to father’s brother’s daughter was not allowed, as they belonged to the same gotra in the patrilineal society.

    Poor North Indian women. They could NOT kick male ass even in their dreams. Ironically, here it is just the reverse. In North India , the women are packed off with a nice dowry in urban households (in the form of gold, money furniture, car …everything for her household) and then she has no claim to anything in her parents’ house.

    She adopts her husband’s gotra, family name, mother-in-law tantrums, sister in law taunts, brother in law’s “devar-bhabiji- flirtation” and all base nonsense that comes along. The man sits as the head of the table, decides what a woman should live and breathe— what to cook, wear, while a woman, no matter how educated must comply under all circumstances.

    South Indian mother-in-laws’ are more graceful than the “battle axe “ North Indian one. Having suffered in a indifferent system for long , their DNA gets warped and they release all their pent up frustrations on the newly married educated daughter-in-law who wants to enjoy life with her husband.

    According to modern medical science, an inbred man or women may suffer from as many as 6000 ailments, arising out of genetic disorder linked to consanguineous marriages, starting from physical deformity, micro cephalous, lower IQ, mental retardation to kidney and liver malfunctioning and so on. But the most common diseases are Sickle-cell disease (SCD), or sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) or drepanocytosis sickle beta-plus-thalassaemia

    Like I said before, the great seer Rishis of India had created the Gotra system to ensure that inbreeding (which destroys the physical and mental faculties of their descendants) does not occur.

    These descendants had to learn Vedas by heart and pass it on for future generations. It was only in 5000 BC that the Vedas changed from oral tradition to written.

    Let me stick to the gotra system in Brahmins, to keep things simple. Each gotra takes the name of a famous rishi or sage, who was the patrilineal forebear of the clan. Gotra is a concept of patrilineal classification, which identifies the families of a caste. As the population increased so did the number of gotras.

    The original rishis after whom the gotras were named were just eight in number . Gotras were further subdivided into ganas and sub ganas. Another concept is that of Pravar Rishis who were a few of the most learned and capable sages belonging to that gotra. Each Brahmin was thus known by his gotra, pravar, sutra and shakha.

    There are exceptions to the rule too. For example the descendents of Maharishis Bhrigu and Angirasa cannot marry, because of the same Pravara Rishis, which are common to the two individuals.

    The weddings in India are fixed as per the Gotra of the bride and groom. Gotra matching is one of the most important concerns in North indian Hindu matrimony. Wedding in similar Gotra is strictly prohibited. Hindus are very conservative about the caste system and Gotra.

    In the North Indian Hindu society, it is necessary to inquire about the clan and lineage of the bride and groom, before finalizing a wedding alliance. You can check out the matrimonial ads of North Indians and South Indians.

    In the North , it is believed that wedding between same Gotra will lead to destruction of the family and clan, and if the bride and groom belong to different Gotras, their alliance will bring down the chances of congenital birth defects through an increase in the frequency of homozygotes. The girl belongs to her father’s Gotra until her wedding, and then becomes member of his Husband’s Gotra after wedding.

    Our DNA is packaged into tiny strings called chromosomes. We have a pair of each of our chromosomes, one from mom and one from dad. Before being passed on, the two chromosomes in each pair swap DNA. This is called recombination and it’s important for making all of us unique.

    But it confuses ancestry tests because it breaks up the patterns. After about five generations, the patterns are in such small chunks that we can’t easily trace them anymore. So most of your DNA can only trace your roots back around a hundred years.

    The cheaper tests look at DNA that doesn’t do much recombining — the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). You can only trace paternal lines with the Y and only maternal lines with mtDNA. This means these tests miss a whole lot of relatives.

    The Y chromosome is a piece of DNA with the genes that tell a baby to be a boy. It is passed from father to son. So, if you have a Y chromosome you know you got it from your dad, and you know he got it from his dad, all the way back in time.

    Men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome while women have two X chromosomes. DNA swapping happens between a pair of chromosomes, and since the Y chromosome doesn’t have a pair, it can’t swap DNA.

    So patterns stick around for a long time, and this was known to our ancient Vedic seers and written down 7000 year ago. Couples have lost their lives and have been ex-communicated for NOT disregarding gotra — this is how sure the system is.

    But what if you’re a gal? Then there is another small piece of DNA involved,

    Most of the DNA of your body is found in a part of the cell called the nucleus. Dad doesn’t pass on his mitochondria, but mom does. So that DNA only comes from your mom, and her mom, and her mom, all the way back.

    Just like the Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA doesn’t get scrambled. So that DNA tells where your mom’s mom’s mom (and so forth) was thousands of years ago. But since most women don’t pass on their last names, it’s harder to find living relatives using this test.

    If you want know where your most recent ancestors came from and get in touch with living relatives, you’ll probably need the expensive test that looks at all of your DNA. If you are only interested in your more ancient origins, a cheaper test, either of the Y chromosome or of mtDNA, will give you that information.

    In North Indian temples , just to fleece the devotee , especially if he looks well heeled, the priest will make it a point to ask ( taking the offerings ), the votary’s Birth Star, Gotra and name , which is ridiculous indeed. The priest repeats the name, the Gotra and the Birth star to complete the process so that they are announced and recorded in ethereal .

    In South Indian temples NO priest or panda will try to fleece a person inside the temple. The only correct way to resolve a particular Gotra claim in India is to perform DNA analysis of Y Chromosome in males. There are three types of genealogical DNA tests, autosomal (atDNA), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-Chromosome (Y-DNA). Autosomal tests for all ancestry. Y-DNA tests a male along his direct paternal line. mtDNA tests a man or woman along their direct maternal line.

    We must not forget that a gotra is nothing but a CLAIMED mythological descent from a Rishi. 7000 years ago, there were very few people in India. In between we were slaves for 800 years , and lot of selfish people who look like adivasis nay monkeys shifted gears .

    If a person looking like a monkey, and having sh#t for brains, says that he belongs to the Bharadwaja Gotra then it means that we are supposed to believe that he traces back his male ancestry to the ancient Maharishi Bharadwaja 7000 years ago–and fall on his feet, right?

    This claim is most of the time pure bullshit, to pump up their self importance. Imagine Pakistani nuclear smuggler A Q Khan, claming that he was a lineal descendant of Mahmud of Ghazni! And recently British spy Princess, Noor Inayat Khan to Tipu Sultan—so that Christians and Jews can wean away the Sufis.

    The gotra system was an attempt by Vedic Maharishis to protect the Y Chromosome from becoming extinct. It was NOT all about conveying the Vedas by oral route alone.

    It was to sustain the human race, too.

    One ancestory line is the direct female line, that goes through our mother’s mother’s mother, down which we inherit the mitochondrial DNA inside the X chromosome, that we all have. The other is the direct father-to-father line, down which men inherit the Y chromosome.

    Gotra is a family tree whose root can be traced to a common ancestor. Since it is exogamous and patrilineal, it is based only on the the Y chromosome. . A man cannot marry a woman of the same gotra. But a male can marry a woman of the same gotra at least seven degrees removed from his father.

    The rule of the Gotra system is that the Gotra of men remains the same, while the Gotra of the woman becomes the Gotra of their husband after marriage. Now suppose a person has only daughters and no sons. In that case his Gotra will end with him in that lineage because his daughters will belong to the Gotras of their husbands after their marriage! This was probably the reason why in the ancient vedic or hindu societies it was preferred to have atleast one son along with any number of daughters, so that the Gotra of the father could continue.

    Thus the gotra system has to do with the Y Chromosome alone . Humans have 23 pairs of Chromosomes and in each pair one Chromosome comes from the father and the other comes from the mother. So in all we have 46 Chromosomes in every cell, of which 23 come from the mother and 23 from the father.

    Of these 23 pairs, there is one pair called the Sex Chromosomes which decide the gender of the person. During conception, if the resultant cell has XX sex chromosomes then the child will be a girl and if it is XY then the child will be a boy. X chromosome decides the female attributes of a person and Y Chromosome decides the male attributes of a person.

    When the initial embryonic cell has XY chromosome, the female attributes get suppressed by the genes in the Y Chromosome and the embryo develops into a male child. Since only men have Y Chromosomes, son always gets his Y Chromosome from his father and the X Chromosome from his mother. On the other hand daughters always get their X Chromosomes, one each from both father and mother.

    So the Y Chromosome is always preserved throughout a male lineage (Father – Son – Grandson etc) because a Son always gets it from his father, while the X Chromosome is not preserved in the female lineage (Mother, Daughter, Grand Daughter etc) because it comes from both father and mother.

    A mother will pass either her mother’s X Chromosome to her Children or her father’s X Chromosome to her children or a combination of both because of both her X Chromosomes getting mixed (called as Crossover). On the other hand, a Son always gets his father’s Y Chromosome and that too almost intact without any changes because there is no corresponding another Y chromosome in his cells to do any mixing as his combination is XY, while that of females is XX which hence allows for mixing as both are X Chromosomes.
    Y Chromosome is the only Chromosome which gets passed down only between the men in a lineage.

    Women never get this Y Chromosome in their body. And hence Y Chromosome plays a crucial role in modern genetics in identifying the Genealogy ie male ancestry of a person. And the Gotra system was designed to track down the root Y Chromosome of a person quite easily.

    The Y Chromosome is the only Chromosome which does not have a similar pair in the human body. The pair of the Y Chromosome in humans is X Chromosome which is significantly different from Y Chromosome. Even the size of the Y Chromosome is just about one third the size of the X Chromosome. In other words throughout evolution the size of the Y Chromosome has been decreasing and it has lost most of its genes and has been reduced to its current size. Scientists are debating whether Y Chromosome will be able to survive for more than a few million years into the future or whether it will gradually vanish, and if it does so whether it will cause males to become extinct!

    Obviously because Y Chromosome is the one which makes a person male or a man. And the reason for all this is that unlike other Chromosomes, there is no way for Y Chromosome to repair itself by doing cross over with its Chromosomal pair. All other Chromosomes come in similar pairs and when there the DNA of one Chromosome gets damaged the cell can repair it by copying over the DNA from the other Chromosome in that pair as both the Chromosomes in all other pairs are almost identical in nature.

    This copying (or crossing over as it is called) also allows different combinations of mix and matches to happen between the genes of mother and father and allows the best of the matches to survive and hence make the Chromosomes stronger as they evolve in successive generations. Even X Chromosomes in female undergo this mix and match since there are two X Chromosomes in women.

    Females have XX chromosomes , and any damage in one X chromosome can be corrected by simply copying the genetic data from the other X chromosome.

    Men have XY Chromosomes ! Y Chromosomes do not have any corresponding equivalent Chromosome in its pair. It can exist only in a XY Combination and X cannot mix and match with Y except for a small 5% of X which matches with Y, while the remaining 95% of Y Chromosome which is crucial in the development of a male have absolutely no match at all!. It is this 95% of the Y Chromosome which is completely responsible in humans for creating a male or a man.

    But at the same time, Y Chromosome has to depend on itself to repair any of its injuries and for that it has created duplicate copies of its genes within itself. However this does not stop DNA damages in Y Chromosome which escape its local repair process from being propagated into the offspring males. This causes Y Chromosomes to accumulate more and more defects over a prolonged period of evolution and scientists believe that this is what is causing the Y Chromosome to keep losing its weight continuously.

    As discussed earlier other Chromosomes do not face this issue because they have corresponding pairs from both the parents and the DNA damage could be easily corrected most of the time by the mix and match process that takes place between the two Chromosomes in a pair. This Chromosomal crossover process eliminates damaged genes and is one of the key processes in evolution of life.

    So to summarize, Y Chromosome which is crucial for the creation and evolution of males has a fundamental weakness which is denying it participation in the normal process of evolution via Chromosomal mix and match to create better versions in every successive generation, and this weakness MAY lead to the extinction of Y Chromosome altogether over the next few million years, and if that happens scientists are not sure whether that would cause males to become extinct or not. And that is because Scientists are not sure whether any other Chromosome in the 23 pairs will be able to take over the role of the Y Chromosome or not.

    This proves that our Vedic seers had observed the degeneration of the Y Chromosome and they wanted to maintain as many individual healthy unique Y Chromosome lineages as possible.

    That would give a fair chance for males to continue to exist because Y Chromosomes get passed on over generations with almost negligible change in their genetic combinations, as they do not take part in mix and match with other Chromosome.

    The Maharishis created the Gotra system where they barred marriage between a boy and a girl belonging to the same Gotra no matter how deep the lineage tree was, in a bid to prevent inbreeding and completely eliminate all recessive defective genes from the human DNA.

    Manu-smriti states that Hindus should leave 7 generations from the fathers side and 5 generations from the mother side before fixing up a marriage—to preserve the integrity of the Y chromosome.

    Punch into Google search MANU , THE FIRST LAW MAKER.

    I had seen a Pakistani movie BOL where the old man beats up his wife as she gave birth only to girls—and the one boy she had was a hermaphrodite. The Muslim community is destroying themselves the Parsi way by inter-breeding.

    Females carry only X chromosomes, while males carry both X and Y chromosomes. So it is actually the male whose chromosome decides whether the offspring will be a male or a female. No point in beating up your wife.

    Since the Khap Caste Councils are powerful instruments during election times, they are propped up by desh drohi politicians. There are nearly 2700 Jat gotras and they have nothing to do with the Brahmanical gotras and Saptarishis and all that.

    Gotra names based on place-names are Sindhu, Gandhari, Tushar, Nehra, Bhind etc. Some gotra names are based on titles too such as Rawat, Rao, Chauhan, Parihar, Parmar, Rana, Thakur, Chaudhuri etc.

    Om Prakash Chautala (ex-CM) , Naveen Jindal (Congress MP from Kurukshetra) and several others have been pleading the cases of khap panchayats with the Central Government. These Khap panchayats must be legally banned, once NDA comes to power.

    The khap panchayats have unwritten laws, to wield extraordinary power. Their decisions that bind the villagers in a reign of terror ,are clearly illegal and extra-Constitutional.

    Let us remember Manoj (23) and wife Babli (19) who were killed on 15 June 2007 by the order of a khap panchayat and were forced to drink pesticide.

    This happened despite police protection to the couple based on a High Court Order since the Policemen melted away from the scene despite being armed.

    Italian queen Bee supported caste revivalism has caused politically influential and ambitious Jat landlords to hop on to the Khap bandwagon.

    Can you imagine a first time independent and a non-entity like Gopal Goyal Kanda splurged money which he got out of illegal land deals , and became home minister of Haryana in Sonia’s UPA government .

    How did Robert Vadra get his million? From land deals , right?

    These local landlords became self-appointed Pradhans and MahaSachivs of various Khaps in funny looking old fashion clothes. Every Khap agitation are fuelled by the same goons, belonging Congress or Chautala’s India National Lok Dal . When they go abroad they are dressed up in 3 piece suits..

    These Khaps are mortally scared of women getting empowered.

    Something very strange happened during the Maruti car factory riots. The Khaps came out in large numbers to support the Maruti management in Manesar , going against the labour forces.

    What is the catch?

    This means there is an unholy nexus between Capitalism and feudalism . These Khaps support FDI in Multibrand retail–pray- why?

    Two decades ago, whoever heard of Khaps ?

    The real estate boom has surprisingly revived these feudal structures. The Khap Panchayats are strongest in Jhajjar, Rohtak, Sonepat, Panipat and Western U.P. — districts around Delhi which have been the biggest gainers from the recent real estate boom.

    Gotra is a mere social identity marker and not a genetic entity in this modern age of 1300 million Indians, with a whole variety of castes and clans in the fray. .

    Majority 72% honour killing cases are inter caste marriages ( rich poor too ) and only 3 % same gotra marriages.

    First cousin marriages and same gotra marriages cannot be equated and hence the genetic implications as well.

    Why do homosexuals die early and who do most of them suffer from Alzheimer’s before they die ? Because they have shorter telomeres. In India we do NOT have this problem because of the Gotra system.

    Illiterate Khap elders can be seen these days talking through their turbans like experts on genetics. They argue that any kind of sexual relation between two sexes in a particular gotra is rightly treated as incest, as the offspring of such an alliance would have genetic disorders.


    You will NOT see too many colour blind people ( or even homosexuals ) in India, because of the Gotra system..

    Color blindness is primarily inherited by way of a mutated X Chromosome. Due to the fact that men only have one X chromosome, if they are handed a faulty X chromosome (by a carrier mother) they will be color blind.

    Women on the other hand have two X chromosomes, which is why many less women are color blind than men.

    The odds that both X chromosomes are faulty is extremely low, and the healthy one will take precedence providing normal perception of color.

    18 Things You Should Know About Genetics

    Watch this animated film that presents fundamental background information about genetics, as well as offering some quirky but interesting facts about DNA, genes and genetics. It was created to be an upbeat, fun educational short film to initiate and draw interest to this sometimes daunting and seemingly complex subject matter.

  • precisely the gotras system would make more sense if they took into account the X chromosomes and not ignore or simply waver the matrilineal lineage on the whims of frustrated patriarchs using bogus nonsense to assert moral superiority by differentiating themselves from a foreign invader that subjugated them

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