Natural Sciences

# Understanding Natural Phenomena 11: Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity

Einstein’s special theory of relativity (cf. Part 10) was followed by his general theory of relativity (1907-1915), which addresses the issue of gravity. He showed that, contrary to Newton’s assumption, gravitational waves, which mediate gravitational attraction between any two bodies, travel at a finite speed, namely the speed of light. The theory explained gravitational interaction in terms of a DISTORTION OF SPACETIME by every object. The larger the mass of an object, the more is this distortion. When one object distorts spacetime, the effect is felt by every other object; this is how gravitational attraction between any two objects occurs.

Newton’s second law of motion says that the acceleration (a) produced by a force F acting on an object of mass m is equal to F/m; i.e., F = ma. The mass m that enters this equation is called the ‘inertial’ mass. To understand why, let us recall Newton’s first law of motion, which says that a body continues to be in a state of rest or uniform motion, unless acted upon by a force. Thus, the body exhibits inertia to any change of its state of rest or uniform motion; it resists a change in its state, and the resistance or inertia is proportional to its mass, the ‘inertial’ mass.

Next, let us consider Newton’s law of gravitation. Consider any two bodies or objects, having masses m1 and m2, and a distance r apart. The law says that the gravitational force of attraction between them is F = G(m1m2)/(r2); here G is the ‘Gravitational constant’, a fundamental parameter of Nature in our universe. [Some other such fundamental parameters are the speed of light c, and the Planck constant, h.] The mass that enters the gravitation-law equation is ‘gravitational’ mass.

The big question was: Is inertial mass the same as gravitational mass? Newton (and also Galileo) asserted that it is so, and that it is a happy coincidence that it is so. Einstein agreed that the two kinds of mass are the same, but he created a trail-blazing theory of gravity out of this ‘happy coincidence’, namely the general theory of relativity. The sameness or equivalence of the two kinds of mass goes by the name of EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE, an essential ingredient of Einstein’s theory.

Einstein argued that the experience of being pulled downwards by the gravitational force on the surface of the Earth is equivalent to being inside a spaceship (far from any sources of gravity) that is being accelerated by its engines.

From this, Einstein deduced that free-fall is actually ‘inertial motion’ (i.e., constant-speed motion). An object in free-fall really does not accelerate, but rather the closer it gets to an object such as the Earth, the more the time scale becomes stretched due to spacetime distortion around the planetary object. As it approaches the planetary object the time scale stretches at an accelerated rate, giving the appearance that it is accelerating towards the planetary object. An accelerometer in free-fall does not register any acceleration.

When an observer detects the local presence of a force that acts on all objects in proportion to the inertial mass of the object, the observer can be taken to be experiencing an accelerated frame of reference. Imagine two reference frames, K and K’. K has a uniform gravitational field, whereas K’ has no gravitational field but is uniformly accelerated by such an amount that objects in the two frames experience identical forces:

‘We arrive at a very satisfactory interpretation of this law of experience, if we assume that the systems K and K’ are physically exactly equivalent; that is, if we assume that we may just as well regard the system K as being in a space free from gravitational fields, if we then regard K as uniformly accelerated. This assumption of exact physical equivalence makes it impossible for us to speak of the absolute acceleration of the system of reference, just as the usual (i.e. special) theory of relativity forbids us to talk of the absolute velocity of a system; and it makes the equal falling of all bodies in a gravitational field seem a matter of course’ (Einstein 1911).

Einstein went further than that:

‘As long as we restrict ourselves to purely mechanical processes in the realm where Newton’s mechanics holds sway, we are certain of the equivalence of the systems K and K’. But this view of ours will not have any deeper significance unless the systems K and K’ are equivalent with respect to all physical processes, that is, unless the laws of Nature with respect to K are in entire agreement with those with respect to K’. By assuming this to be so, we arrive at a principle which, if it is really true, has great heuristic importance. For by theoretical consideration of processes which take place relatively to a system of reference with uniform acceleration, we obtain information as to the career of processes in a homogeneous gravitational field’ (Einstein, 1911).

He combined the equivalence principle with special relativity theoryto predict, among other things, that clocks run at different rates in a gravitational field, and that light rays bend in a gravitational field (‘gravitational lensing effect’). This and many other predictions of the theory have been confirmed by experiment.

The central idea of Einstein’s theory is that the presence of matter distorts or curves spacetime. Thus gravity is interpreted as not a force, but rather a curvature in the fabric of spacetime, and objects respond to gravity by following (or free-falling along) the curvature of spacetime in the vicinity of an object. This idea has shaped modern cosmology. It also marked a major inroad of geometry into physics.

This video by Richard Feynman (on the character of physical law) is a treat to watch:

Dr. Vinod Wadhawan is a scientist, rationalist, author, and blogger. He has written books on ferroic materials, smart structures, complexity science, and symmetry. More information about him is available at his website. Since October 2011 he has been writing at The Vinod Wadhawan Blog, which celebrates the spirit of science and the scientific method.

• hiroji kurihara says:

Free Fall

An elevator cabin is in free fall. On a plane, an observer is moving in a uniform linear motion horizontally. To him, the locus of the elevator is visible as a parabola.

On every atom of the former, inertial force is acting. On every atom of the latter, inertial force is not acting. Inertial force is not fictitious force. So, the two motions are not relative.

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• hiroji kurihara says:

Equivalence Principle

Let’s start from accelerated motion. Many substances (solids, fluids, etc) are moving in various accelerated motion. According to this motion, inertial force occurs. Imagine water of a current. Involvement between inertial force and gravity will be on resultant force only.《P.S.》Acceleration is not relative and inertial force is not fictitious. The two are corresponding qualitatively and quantitatively.

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• hiroji kurihara says:

Equivalence principle

Free fall of an elevator will be (one of the) problems of resultant force (composition of forces). All will be explicable as a problem of resultant force.

There are two pictures. In each picture, vector of two forces (f = f’) acting on a point are drawn. Direction of vectors is opposite (right and left). In one picture, forces are gravity and gravity. In the other picture, gravity and inertial force. Two pictures will not be the same (an infinite small area will be also).

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• Hiroji Kurihara says:

Gravitational acceleration

Who started to say gravitational acceleration ? Is it a technical term really ? It seems to be an adjective.

Is there a difference between an acceleration caused by an ordinal force ? If there is not a difference, a thing called gravitational acceleration will not exist.

• Turn your eyes to accelerated motion and inertial force. It does not matter what gravity is.

• Sorry,this comment is on STR.

Time dilation

A light source is shinning (frequency is constant). Two observers are receding from the light source at the same speed (in the opposite direction). Two observers receive the same frequency. Where is the time dilation ?

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http://lifeafterdeath.vip/eng.html

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• An elevator in free fall

In it, action and reaction are working. The two are equal as a whole and at the selected infinite small area. By the way, in an elevator accelerated horizontally, the two (horizontal) are equal at every area.

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• Equivalence principle

Every inertial force is measurable. Every gravitational force is measurable also. Principally. In an elevator in free fall, there is no exception. the

• An elevator in free fall

Are the two indistinguishable? Vector of the two are opposite.

• Bremsstrahlung

A website says, “A charged particle is decelerated. And energy of motion is emitted as electro magnetic waves”. But, difference between deceleration and acceleration seen from inertial frames will be relative. Or, phenomenon bremsstrahlung depends on the absolute rest frame?

• Inertial force

From the roof of an accelerating passenger car, two bodies the same in appearance are hung. Mass is m and 2m. Inertial force is not fictitious.

• Inertial force

From the roof of an accelerating passenger car, two bodies of the same appearance are hung by strings.
Mass is m and 2m. Inertial force is not fictitious.

• Hiroji kurihara says:

Free fall

There are inumerable vectors of inertial forces and gravity everywhere. On an elevator cabin, why they are making a big fuss ?

• Hiroji kurihara says:

Difference of motion

Difference of inertial motion and accelerated motion will be difference of motion relative to aether frame. And accelerated motion and inertial force are the front and back of a fact. Inertial force is not fictitious.

• Fall of non free

Imagine an elevators are falling in various density of air. Hydrodynamics tell motions of these elevators. Equivalence principle isinvalid.

• New equivalence principle ?
A passenger car is accelerating (at a, to the right). A body is hung from the roof by a string. Can the string distinguish mg caused by acceleration and by gravity ? No, it is a joke. But a picture of an elevator cabin seems to be a joke also.

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• Equivalence principle
Two forces the same strength are acting on a particle from the opposite. The two are inertial force, tension and gravity. Different combinations are three. Forget the equivalence principle.

• Inertial force

On a slope (no friction), a body is sliding down. Action is gravity mg. Then, how about the reaction ? It is resolved to two vectors. Inertial force is not fictitious.

• Equivalence principle is nonsense (I say again)

An elevator in free fall is explained fully by Newton. No different explanation is possible. And it is the same even if limited to an infinite small area.

• Inertial force is not fictitious

On a plane, there are two bodies. One is at a standstill, the other is accelerating. Acceleration (a) and inertial force (ma) both are not fictitious.

There are two disks. One is not rotating, the other is rotating. Acceleration and inertial force both are not fictitious.

• Acceleration

From nothing, “a” seems not to emerge. By acceleration of body relative to aether, “ma” will emerge. Qualitatively and quantitatively.

• Acceleration (I say again)

On a plane, a straight line is drawn. On this line, two bodies are receding. One is at a standstill, the other is accelerating uniformly. In space, there seems to exist uniform isotropic rest frame that distinguishes the acceleration qualitatively and quantitatively.

• Space is rest frame

Into space, let us draw plural vectors of acceleration a. Space will be rest frame absolute.

• Eruptions

Are there still berievers of relativity ? Eruptions. It is not a thing of this world.

• About inertial force (I say again)

On a plane, there are two passenger cars. One is accelerating and the other is at a standstill. Difference of the motion of the two is not relative but absolute.

On a plane, a passenger car is accelerating. On the floor (no friction), a body is put. This body is not accelerated (to everyone). From physics of 20th century, nonsenses overflow.

• Sagnac effect

Let’s try to explain Sagnac effect by the emission theory. There is a picture of light pathes (a light source and two mirrors form an equilateral triangle). On this triangle, there are three emission points (different inertial frames). It will be the cause of this effect.

• Accelerated motion of a light source

Light emitted from an accelerated source will follow instantaneous speed of the source. In short, light will scceed motion vector of instantaneous speed of the source. The emission theory imply the above.

I say again, the emission theory will be valid for a few seconds only after the emission. After this, light follows aether.

• Equivalence principle

Difference between acceleration and nonacceleration seems to be more basic. If so, equivalence principle is out of the question.

• Propagation of light (I say again)

Light is propagated in three ways (as follows).
1 In mediums, speed of light is c/n. MM experiment (done in air) is invalid.
2. In outer space, a star light is reflected by a mirror. Speed of incident light is constant relative to aether.
3. In outer space, a star light is reflected by a mirror. Speed of reflected light is constant relative to the mirror.

In three pictures above each, speed of light to a moving observer follows Galilean transformation.

• On acceleration, there is a web site as follows.

“Orders of magnitude (acceleration) – Wikipedia”

• Acceleration and nonacceleration

A passenger car is accelerating (uniformly). A body is hung from the roof, a body is placed on the floor (no friction) and a station building. Physics seems not to distinguish the three.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

Mercury revolving is divided in two (hemisphere A facing the sun and the other B). Inertial force is A＜B and gravity is A＞B (center of gravity is not on the orbit).

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

Yesterday’s post must be the most natural explanation of perihelion shift of Mercury. Because the value of perigee movement of the moon is remarkable (around 8.85 years). On the other hand, value of asteroids will not be found. Common explanation is not acceptable.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

Perihelion shift moves forward constantly. It cannot be explained by gravity of other planets.

On asteroids, no perihelion shift will be observed. Some size is needed.

Cause of perigee movement of the moon is written to be the sun. But it will be the same phenomenon to perihelion shift of planets. Not acceptable.

• NK says:

Einstein, Parallel Universes and Hindu Philosophy

The General Theory of Relativity has completely changed our understandings of the Universe. It is one of the towering achievements of the 20th-century physics. It explains that the force of gravity arises from the curvature of space and time.

Albert Einstein, who was not very bright in a study during his early life, is recognized as the world’s most genius person of all time. He completely changed the fabric of science. His discoveries opened the door to the atomic age. In 1905 Einstein developed the quantum theory of light which established that light exists as tiny particles called photons. In the same year, Einstein completed his Special Relativity Theory, which established that energy and matter are linked. After eight years of research on the problem of gravity Einstein completed in 1915 the General Theory of Relativity. In 1917, Einstein published a paper applying the General Theory of Relativity to model the behavior of entire Universe.

General Theory of Relativity

The General Theory of Relativity has completely changed our understandings of the Universe. It is one of the towering achievements of the 20th-century physics. It explains that the force of gravity arises from the curvature of space and time. Einstein showed that the matter and energy actually mold the shape of space and the flow of time. Very complicated geometrical ideas of the Riemannian manifold and of the curvature associated with these manifold played an essential role in allowing for a rigorous mathematical foundation of Einstein’s General Relativity Theory.

Einstein’s landmark theory predicted the existence of gravitational waves 100 years before they were first detected by NASA by using interferometers. According to Einstein’s theory, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. General relativity is the basis of the current cosmological model of a consistently expanding universe.

Next Nobel Prize Denied

Einstein had been awarded Nobel Prize in 1921 for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. Surprisingly Einstein was not awarded separately another Nobel Prize for his historic General Relativity Theory though some years back in 1903 and 1911 Madame Curie was awarded twice Nobel prize for her two separate works in the field of radioactivity. Ironically, the General Theory of Relativity played only a minor indirect role in awarding Nobel Prize to Einstein, while 14 Nobel prizes were awarded in the period between 1933 and 2006 to different scientists for works based on Einstein’s relativity theory.

Unified Field Theory

Albert Einstein, who died in 1955 spent his last 30 years of life unsuccessfully searching for a unified field theory. In the mid-19th century, James Clerk Maxwell had formulated the first field theory related to electromagnetism. Similarly, in 20th century Albert Einstein developed the general theory of relativity, which is field theory of gravitation. However, Einstein was unsuccessful in his attempts to develop a unified single field theory by merging electromagnetism and gravity.

It has become clear that there should be further studies to develop unified field theory. One of such studies recognized by many renowned scientists is the STRING THEORY. It is the quantum theory of minute strings and membranes. The string theory is expected to be the ultimate answer in search of a unified field theory that includes gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force ( it is binding force that provides attraction between protons and neutrons and holds an atom’s nucleus together), weak nuclear force ( weak nuclear force is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission) and perhaps a fifth force related with still not fully understood dark matter.

String Theory

Brien Green, Professor of Mathematics and Cosmology at the University of Columbia USA, is the best-known proponent of STRING THEORY. String theory hypothesizes that string-like filaments of vibrating energy create every particle and force in the universe. All the different kinds of particles arise from the different notes the string can play. Everything is a cosmic symphony. All the particles of the world are notes that the string can play.

The string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. This theory has been applied to a variety of problems in black hole physics, early universe cosmology, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Because string theory potentially is a unified description of gravity and all other forces, it is indeed a candidate for the unified theory.

In everyday life, there are three dimensions of space: height, width, and length. In Einstein’s general theory of relativity, time is treated as an additional dimension. One fundamental factor of string theory is that it requires 11-dimensions including one-time dimension for its mathematical consistency.

Parallel Universes Theory

Dr. Michio Kaku, physicist and a renowned scientist in the field of cosmology, who was teaching at Princeton University, has said that string theory has demonstrated the existence of parallel universes. According to that theory, the universe is a bubble that exists alongside other similar parallel universes.

According to Andrei Linde, a Russian Professor of Cosmology and Physics at the University of Stanford, USA, who is playing the lead role in advancing the theory of PARALLEL UNIVERSES, the cosmos, a gas like entity is similar to a Swiss cheese. The cheesy part of the cheese is the energy. At various parts, energy dissipates and creates the little opening which grows over time. According to inflationary cosmology, the burst is not one single event. There can be many many inflationary bursts each time accompanied by the creation of the universe.

Hindu Philosophy

Prof. Andrei Linde has said to his audience in one of his lectures about the vastness of the cosmos described in the Hindu philosophy to draw a kind of similarity with his own vision of the parallel universes. He has described that according to the Hindu Puran the Arjun was terribly shaken with fright when the God Krishna on his request showed him the awfully vast expense of the cosmos.

There is yet another amazing example of a striking similarity between an incident described in the Hindu Puran and the concept of the existence of several universes. It is described in the Puran that once God Krishna took Arjun into Cosmos. Arjun was utterly surprised to find that there were other Goloks ( Universe) also in the cosmos very similar to our universe. To his great astonishment, he found another Krishna and also another Arjun in that Golok ( or Universe). How surprisingly similar is the description of the parallel universe presented by Prof. Brian Green in a lecture on Parallel Universe to amuse his audience “ There are innumerable universes in the cosmos. Few of them could be almost the exact copy of our universe. Perhaps in that universe Sera Pelain instead losing the election for vice-presidency might have even become President of the USA after winning the election.”

• TKS says:

Time of Brahma, the Twin Paradox and Theory of Relativity!

BY DESH KAPOOR

14 years ago

In Srimad Bhagwata there is a story where a King takes his daughter to the “abode” or “plane” of Brahma – the creator so that He could help with the search for her husband. They wait for Brahma for a few moments and when he talks to them he says “King when you go back to Earth everything would have changed. None that you knew would be existing anymore. While you have been here a few moments, several thousand years have passed by back there on Earth!”

Is this because the “plane or abode” of the creator was only to be inhabited at a higher speed – much higher than the speed of light? I was reading “The Complete Illustrated Book of Yoga“- where this incident is mentioned. And the suggestion that the author makes is that much as the Vedic scriptures are replete with the “Voyages” to Moon or Sun or various planets and inter-galaxy imagination – while other civilizations elsewhere on this planets did not even know if Earth went around Sun or the vice versa! – is it possible that “Mind” could have been a vehicle for transportation. Often at speeds many times that of light? The speeds and vibrational energy of a “place” could be achievable by sheer application of mind.

So much for the “way” to achieve that speed but it is beyond any doubt that age of creation – as the Vedic Rishis surmised was in millions of years. No chance of any apocalypse anytime soon, sorry guys! This as was mentioned in my earlier post may been true and something which modern science may be turning towards anyways!

Given the above line of thought, is it possible that Srimad Bhagwata was actually referring to a phenomenon that Einstein later came to in his Theory of Relativity and the effects of travel at or over the speed of light (Twin Paradox)?! Whatever be the truth, at least those people were thinking “beyond” what most scientists could not even comprehend just a decade ago!!

Here is an explanation of the Vedic Time Cycles:

According to Hindu mythology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. The life span of Brahma, the creator, is 120 divine years (Mahakalpamu). Everyday, Brahma creates 14 Manus one after the other, who in turn create and regulate the world. Thus, there are fourteen generations of Manu in one day (Kalpamu) of Brahma. Each Manu’s life (Manvantaramu) consists of 71 quartets of eras. Each quartet is composed of four eras: Krita, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. The span of Krita era is 1,728,000 human years, Treta era is 1,296,000 human years, Dvapara era is 864,000 human years and Kali era is 432,000 human years. When Manu perishes at the end of his life, Brahma creates the next Manu and the cycle continues until all fourteen Manus and the Universe perish by the end of the day. When night falls, Brahma goes to sleep for a period of time equal to fourteen lives of Manus. The next morning, he begins the creation with first Manu again. The cycle goes on for 120 divine years at the end of which Brahma himself perishes and is regenerated.

The present period is the Kaliyuga or last era of the seventh Manu’s life. This Kaliyuga began 5,101 years ago (in 3101 BC), at the end of the Dvapara era that was marked by the death of lord Krishna, the mortal incarnation of Vishnu. The beginning of the new Yugamu (era) is known as “Yugadi/Ugadi“, and is celebrated every year on the first day (Paadyami) of the first month (Chaitramu) of the 12-month annual cycle.

Here is the breakdown of the various elements of timeon a larger scale and the explanations:

One cycle of the above four yugas is one mahayuga (4.32 million solar years)
A manvantara consists of 71 mahayugas (306,720,000 solar years)
After each manvantara follows one Sandhi Kala of the same duration as a Krita Yuga (1,728,000 = 4x solar years). (It is said that during a Sandhi Kala, the entire earth is submerged in water.)
A kalpa consists of a period of 1,728,000 solar years called Adi Sandhi, followed by 14 manvantaras and Sandhi Kalas.
A day of Brahma equals
(14 times 71 mahayugas) + (15 times 4x solar years)

= 994 mahayugas + (60 x solar years)

= 994 mahayugas + (6 times 10 x ) solar years

= 994 mahayugas + 6 mahayugas

= 1000 mahayugas

as is confirmed by the Gita statement “sahasra-yuga paryantam ahar-yad brahmano viduH”, meaning, a day of brahma is of 1000 (maha-)yugas.

Thus a day of Brahma, kalpa, is of duration: 4.32 billion solar years.

Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma; the life cycle of Brahma is one hundred years of Brahma, or 311 trillion years. We are currently in the 51st year of the present Brahma and so about 155 trillion years have elapsed since He took over as Brahma.

The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar.

• Theory of relativity, wormhole and Time Travel in Hinduism
Wiki News Wiki News
5 years ago

“When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous.” -Albert Einstein
Bohr, Heisenberg and Schrödinger regularly read Vedic texts. Heisenberg stated, “Quantum theory will not look ridiculous to people who have read Vedanta.”
Concepts introduced by the theories of relativity include:
1. Measurements of various quantities are relative to the velocities of observers. In particular, space contracts and time dilates.
2. Spacetime: space and time should be considered together and in relation to each other.
3.The speed of light is nonetheless invariant, the same for all observers.
According to Hindu scriptures, Brahma is the creator of this universe and the planet where he resides is called as “Brahma-Lok”. His creation aspect is repetitive in nature where there is a Satya yuga (Golden age) which spans for 1.728 million years, followed by Treta yuga(Silver age) spanning 1.296 million years, followed by Dwapar yuga (Bronze age) spanning 864 million years followed by Kali yuga(Dark age) spanning 432000 million years. These four yugas are repeated 71 times to form one manvantara. Manvantara is repeated fourteen times to form Half kalpa, meaning One day of Lord brahma. Another half kalpa is night of Lord Brahma.

In satya yuga(Golden age), there lived a benevolent and courageous king called Kakudmi. He had a very beautiful daughter named Revati, endowed with auspicious and mystical qualities. King Kakudmi was not able to find a suitable match for her in the entire earth and decides to travel to Brahmalok (Which exist millions of light years away from earth). When they arrived at brahma lok, Lord Brahma was listening to a musical performance by celestial Dancers. King kakudmi waited patiently for sometime till the musical performance was finished. After the musical performance when Lord Brahma asked the king for his problem, he said “I am not able to find a suitable match for my daughter ‘Revati’”. Then Lord Brahma smiles and explains that time runs differently on different planes of existence. Your few minutes in my celestial planets are equivalent to many yugas on earth.Lord Brahma: “Son, Speed of time on earth and my celestial planet (Brahmalok) is different. On earth, speed of time is so fast that in one day of Brahms loka, many yugas on earth have passed. During your stay on Brahma loka, three yugas have passed on earth. O king, don’t waste time any more. Go to earth as early as possible. Till you reach there, Dwapar yuga would have ended. At that time, Sheshnaag would incarnate in a human form. He along with the ever-pervading god Lord Krishna may be playing game (illusions) on earth. Your daughter Revati in reality is a wife of Sheshnaag. Under the blessings of Devi Nagalakshmi, she has incarnated on earth to serve her husband Sheshnaag. ”
Brahma said by the time you came and stayed here, already 27 Manvantara have passed. “O King, all your ministers, wives, kinsmen, father etc, all those whom you have accepted as your sweetheart has swept away in the course of time. Today, nobody on earth knows about you or your descendants”. Shocked and surprised, king looks for a solution. Then Brahma says “If you start now, by the time you reach earth, you will be in Dwapar yuga of 28 Manvantara. There you can marry your daughter to Balaram, the avatar of Sheshnaag, Lord Vishnu serpent. And You will be granted Moksha(Salvation) by none other than Lord Krishna, avatar of Lord Vishnu for that yuga.”
This concept of relativity has been proved by American scientist and astronauts travelling in space on their spacecrafts. Even when the astronauts travel in spaceships for years, they feel like travelling for only few days.
HINDUISM IS PURE UNOBSCURED SCIENCE
In INTERSTELLAR movie, there is a concept- 1 Hour on Miller planet is equal to 7 Years on Earth.
Due to a technical snag, the team is forced to spend 3 hours on that planet resulting in loss of 23 years on Earth. Which means 10 years old daughter of Hero becomes 33 years old and the hero remains of the same age.

In Hindu Mythology, once in the war between Gods & Demons, Indra took help of (Human) king Muchukunda.
King Muchukunda helped gods in the war but the war lasted for 1 year and that was in heaven.

After the war was over, when Muchukunda expresses desire to go back to earth to meet his family, Indra tells him that 1 year in Heaven is equal to 360 years on Earth hence his family & kingdom must have been destroyed by now with the passage of time.
Bhagavat Purana which explains the relativity of time:
“… One’s life endures for only one hundred years, in terms of the times in the different planets… Eternal time is certainly the controller of different dimensions, from that of the atom up to the super-divisions of the duration of Brahmâ’s life; but, nevertheless, it is controlled by the Supreme. Time can control only those who are body conscious, even up to the Satyal

• TKS says:

Science in Hinduism-Einstein Theory of relativity

Einstein is widely acclaimed as the greatest ever scientist born on earth. He is credited for his theories like speed of light, theory of relativity, time dilation and other concepts related to space time continuum. However, you might be surprised that all his theories have their roots in ancient Indian scriptures. It is quite possible that Einstein must have derived his scientific theories from Indian scriptures or might have heard about his theories in indian scriptures which is very evident from his quotes on India and its culture. Moreover, he was a great admirer of Indian personalities like Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore.

Since Mahatma Gandhi was the follower of bhagavad gita, Einstein must have read bhagavad gita and after thoroughly understanding it, must have said the following words about bhagavad gita.
“When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous.” -Albert Einstein
Theory of Relativity in Indian scriptures
There are innumerable examples of Einstein theory of relativity in ancient Indian scriptures. Modern Scientists are awestruck on seeing the strikingly similar concepts in Indian scriptures while others are surprised to find high-fi scientific concepts in Indians scriptures written thousands of years ago. Many Indian scientists consider Indian scriptures as world past history and are researching Vedas and other ancient literatures for more scientific discoveries.
Before I give the practical examples of Einstein “Theory of relativity” in Indian scriptures, it is very important for us to understand what Einstein “Theory of relativity” exactly is.
Practical Example of Theory of Relativity
Suppose you are kidnapped and carried in a private smooth vehicle travelling at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour. Now you are not aware that you are travelling along with the vehicle at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour. If you look out the window, you will feel that your vehicle is stationary and the person standing outside is moving at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour. But the person standing on a road feels that he is stationary and your vehicle is moving at a speed at 100 kilometers per hour. Another stationary person might feel that your vehicle is stationary and the road is moving at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour.
This situation is very similar to our observance that the earth is stationary and the sun & moon moves from east to west.

Einstein theory of relativity is very well explained in the below YouTube video. Please understand it nicely.

https://youtu.be/ev9zrt__lec

Short conclusion of Einstein theory of relativity
1) Nothing travels faster than light.
2) It is not possible to say which object is stationary and which object is moving.
3) Every observer is correct in thinking that he is stationary and everything else is moving around.
4) Time is relative to your motion. If you travel faster, time moves slowly. If you travel at speed of light, clock stops ticking and so, even if you travel for one year, you will be of the same age you were when you started travelling at speed of light.

Suppose you are 28 years old and your brother is 26 years old. Now you start travelling from earth to space at speed of light for twenty human years. When you return back to earth, you find that you are still young and 28 years old but your brother has grown old and is 46 years old. You will be surprised to know that your younger brother has became elder and you have become the younger one.
This concept of relativity has been proved by American scientist and astronauts travelling in space on their spacecrafts. Even when the astronauts travel in spaceships for years, they feel like travelling for only few days.

Theory of relativity in Indian scriptures
Now, I am going to depict the above theoretical concept in ancient Indian stories.

To understand the story, below is the concept you must apprehend.

According to Indian scriptures, Brahma is the creator of this universe and the planet where he resides is called as “Brahma-Lok”. His creation aspect is repetitive in nature where there is a Satya yuga (Golden age) which spans for 1.728 million years, followed by Treta yuga(Silver age) spanning 1.296 million years, followed by Dwapar yuga (Bronze age) spanning 864 million years followed by Kali yuga(Dark age) spanning 432000 million years. These four yugas are repeated 71 times to form one manvantara. Manvantara is repeated fourteen times to form Half kalpa, meaning One day of Lord brahma. Another half kalpa is night of Lord Brahma.
Below image will help you in better understanding the Indian concept of time.

https://mallstuffs.com/Blogs/BlogImages/ScienceinHinduism-EinsteinTheoryofrelativity0.png

Story of Kakudmi in Brahmalok
In satya yuga(Golden age), there lived a benevolent and courageous king called Kakudmi. He had a very beautiful daughter named revati, endowed with auspicious and mystical qualities. King Kakudmi was not able to find a suitable match for her in the entire earth and decides to travel to Brahmalok (Which exist millions of light years away from earth). When they arrived at brahma lok, Lord Brahma was listening to a musical performance by celestial Dancers. King kakudmi waited patiently for sometime till the musical performance was finished. After the musical performance when Lord Brahma asked the king for his problem, he said “I am not able to find a suitable match for my daughter ‘Revati’”. Then Lord Brahma smiles and explains that time runs differently on different planes of existence. Your few minutes in my celestial planets are equivalent to many yugas on earth. Brahma said by the time you came and stayed here, already 27 Manvantara have passed. “O King, all your ministers, wives, kinsmen, father etc, all those whom you have accepted as your sweetheart has swept away in the course of time. Today, nobody on earth knows about you or your descendants”. Shocked and surprised, king looks for a solution. Then Brahma says “If you start now, by the time you reach earth, you will be in Dwapar yuga of 28 Manvantara. There you can marry your daughter to Balaram, the avatar of Sheshnath, Lord Vishnu serpent. And You will be granted Moksha(Salvation) by none other than lord Krishna, avatar of lord Vishnu for that yuga.”
Now this story is very well explained in the below episode of Sri Krishna:

King kakudmi: “In the entire earth, I did not see a single suitable match for my daughter ‘Revati’. So, I have come here to ask you, on which celestial planet, I shall find a suitable match for her and who will be her husband.”
Lord Brahma: “You will find a husband for her at the earth itself.”

King kakudmi:”But O lord, I didn’t find a single king or prince suitable for her on earth.”
Lord Brahma: “The Kings and princes whom you are talking about, no longer exist at this moment”
King kakudmi:”O Lord, I didn’t understand.”
Lord Brahma: “Son, Speed of time on earth and my celestial planet (Brahmalok) is different. On earth, speed of time is so fast that in one day of Brahms loka, many yugas on earth have passed. During your stay on Brahma loka, three yugas have passed on earth. O king, don’t waste time any more. Go to earth as early as possible. Till you reach there, Dwapar yuga would have ended. At that time, Lord Sheshnath would incarnate in a human form. He along with the ever-pervading god Lord krishna may be playing game (illusions) on earth. Your daughter Revati in reality is a wife of sheshnath. Under the blessings of Devi nagalakshmi, she has incarnated on earth to serve her husband sheshnath. ”
kakudmi pays respect to her incarnated daughter Revati.
Lord Brahma “By giving your daughter to sheshnath, not only you will be free from your responsibility but also will you get salvation from lord Krishna. You will get the happiness of staying forever on the foots of ever pervading god.”
King kakudmi and Daughter revati pay their respects to lord Brahma.
Travelling at speed greater than light, Narada, Celestial son of Brahma announces this news to lord Krishna.
Lord Krishna: “You news is very auspicious. I am very happy.”
Sage Narada: “Narayan Narayan(Narayan is name of lord vishnu). (Looking through his divine perception) narada tells lord Krishna about the travelling of various celestial planets by Princess Revati and father Kakudmi. They will be reaching on earth soon. So, prepare for welcoming them. I am leaving.”
King kakudmi: “Daughter, we have reached earth But how will we find Lord sheshnath in this big earth.”
Revati: “Hey father, your words are like asking how to find light in darkness. Light shows the path to the source. Look at the earth carefully. You will find the lord yourself.”
Revati: “Look at that Daughter. Look!!! Let’s go. We should reach fast.”

The Size of Revati and king kakudmi are very huge. Srimag bhagavatam tells that there is degrading level of species in each yuga. In satya yuga, all species are very large in size. In Treta yuga, species are relatively small compared to Satya yuga and so on with next yugas. This also explains why the animals were bigger millions of years ago and the findings of ancient giant human skeletons.

Now the next story shows how Brahma was fooled in his own illusion.
Brahma vimohana Lila:
Once Lord Krishna was playing with cows and friends at Vrindavan. Brahma didn’t believe that the little kid Krishna is an incarnation of lord Vishnu. He decides to prove it to his spy. Brahma steals all the lord Krishna friends including cows and takes them to Brahma lok. When lord Krishna realizes the test of Brahma, he decides to teach Brahma a lesson. Through his mystical power, Lord Krishna creates identical copies of his friends and cows. When truti( fraction of a second) passes on brahma loka, Brahma realizes that one year has passed on earth. Brahma decides to investigate on the happenings of vrindavan and was bewildered to see Krishna playing with his friends and calves just like before. Seeing the boys and calves simultaneously both on earth and Brahma lok, Brahma realizes that Krishna is none other than lord Vishnu. Brahma also sees other Brahmas which explains the scientific concept of multiple universe, one Brahma for each universe. Krishna explains the concept of multiple universes to lord Brahma. Brahma then apologizes and sends all lord Krishna friend’s back to earth.

The Sanskrit word used in this story is truti. According to Vedic astronomy, truti means 1/33750 of a second.

Muchukund fight with demons in Indra loka
In treta yuga, When demons attacked Deva loka(Celestial planet few layers above earth), Indra(Lord of heaven) requested valiant warriors from other planets to fight against demons. King Muchukund from earth joined indra to fight against the demon. Their fight lasted for one year and ultimately, indra and other deities defeated the demons. After the battle, Indra asked Muchukund for a boon. King Muchukund said “I want to go back to earth to meet my family”. In a grim voice, Indra said “You fought here for only one year but millions of years have passed on earth and no one on earth remembers you now”.

Fight with demons
Indra praises Muchukund and asks for a boon.

Muchukund: “I don’t need any boon. I have everything on earth courtesy of the blessings of my father and ancestors. I have a huge kingdom where all the comforts are waiting for me. I have so much happiness on earth that I don’t need anything else. So, please do me a favor by allowing me to go to earth. I have fulfilled my responsibility of serving you. You don’t need me anymore. Also, Lord shiva son has agreed to become commander in chief of your army. So, your future is safe now and hence, I request you to send me on earth where my kinsmen and wives are waiting for me”
Indra: I cannot give you this permission
Muchukund: “Cannot give??..Why can’t you?… Was there anything lacking in my servitude?”….
Muchukund in a angry voice: “But What?…. But What Lord?…. But What Lord?….”
Indra: “King muchukund, No one from your family Exist on earth now”
muchukund: “No one exists there now. What are you saying? Did my enemies destroyed my kingdom?”
Indra: “No Emperor Muchukund. Nothing like that happened. This happened because of speed of time.”
Muchukund: “Speed of time ….I didn’t understand O lord”.
Indra: “King, You don’t know about speed of time. Speed of time is different in heaven and earth. Speed of time is very fast on earth. So, by the time you stayed here, one yuga has passed on earth. So much time has passed that nor your son is there nor your wives nor your citizens. On the contrary, No one knows about your clan ‘Ishvaku’.”
muchukund: “How did this happen my lord?”
Indra: “This is speed of time, O king. In this world, only god is indestructible else every born being has to die. Even the deities here have to die. On our time, Time god will destroy us. When I die, somebody else will take my place. So, I request you to forget about the ones who no longer exist and it is my wish that you ask for the pleasures you are looking for. I will grant you all such pleasures and comforts. I want to give you a boon. Wealth, sex, happiness, fame or anything else. I can give you anything except Moksha(Salvation) because the power of giving salvation is only with lord shiva and lord Vishnu. Ask? Ask For boon, O king? Ask For boon, O king?”

There may be many such more stories but as of now I have not studied all Indian scriptures. So, these are the only stories I am aware of. In Indian scriptures, science is explained through stories. So, instead of believing Indian scriptures as mythology, better start decoding it for absolute truth. I meditate on lord Krishna, God of the Gods, to give me more intelligence and wisdom to derive more and more scientific concepts from our sacred scriptures.

Lord Krishna, God of the gods.

I will conclude this article with the following sentences from the Bhagavat Purana which explains the relativity of time:
“… One’s life endures for only one hundred years, in terms of the times in the different planets… Eternal time is certainly the controller of different dimensions, from that of the atom up to the super-divisions of the duration of Brahmâ’s life; but, nevertheless, it is controlled by the Supreme. Time can control only those who are body conscious, even up to the Satyaloka or the other higher planets of the universe.”

• TKS says:

Relativity in Hinduism

It has been claimed by many that the bases of the Einstein’s theory of relativity is present in the ancient eastern mysticism. Even it has been pointed out that Albert Einstein was very proficient in the ancient language of the Hindus, the divine language ‘Sanskrit’ and Einstein had read many Hindu scriptures and he used to converse in ‘Sanskrit’ language with the Hindu scholars when they happen to meet him.

The ‘relativity’ concept of the Einstein, in fact is present in many Hindu scriptures. In this article I am going to present one among them and the rest will be discussed later on. This discussion is limited only to the relativity of time, the core concept in the special relativity of Einstein.

According to the Hinduism, the ‘Saivism’ in particular, the Universe is represented as the lord ‘Shiva’. The worship of lord ‘Shiva’ takes TWO forms, one is the formless ‘Shiva-ling’ and the other one is the ‘Nataraj’, the dancing idol of Shiva. The ‘Nataraj’ idol is the representation of the dancing [changing] universe and the other form represents the more advanced, the changeless form, the deeper form, the invisible.

Now, the ‘Nataraj’ idol, is the snap shot of the dance of the God, lord Shiva. This ‘god’ has many snakes [sarpa] or the king cobras, as ornaments on his body, specifically after or at the body joints.

Another point is that, in the Hindu mythology the snake represents many things, ‘time’ being one such representation of it.

So, the lord Shiva having snakes all over his body is nothing but, there are different time frames in the Universe, as claimed by Albert Einstein in his modern theory of relativity. At different places [called as frames of reference – in the modern relativity theory] of the Universe, the ‘time’ moves at different speeds. For example on the Sun the time moves faster compared to on the Earth, due to the higher mass of the Sun, but on still bigger massive stars the time movers stills faster. So, the snakes on the body of lord Shiva in fact represent the different time frames operation in the universe.

The snakes on the lord are always in motion, this represents that the time is always moving. If there is no motion, then there is no concept of time at all. Only due to motion of something, the concept of time comes into being.

[According to Hinduism the motion of the mind, the manas creates – time and space (Universe). If the mind is not moving there is no space and time, in other words there is no universe at all]

Another point is that, at or after each body joint there is a snake on lord Shiva. This implies that – each body part or each part of the Universe has its own time frame, in other words the time is relative, as claimed by Albert Einstein.

This is the main reason for adoring the idol of Shiva with snakes otherwise the devotees could deck their god with golden ornaments.

So ignore the factual fallacy that Shiva. snakes, bla..bla..but did you understand the theory of relativity..???like you never did before albeit in a fast and easy and ever memorable way…

• TKS says:

Einstein’s Religious Theses

Comparing the famous physicist’s concepts of God and soul to Hindu beliefs
Mark Hawthorne, California

Many people, mostly theologians, have accused Einstein of being an atheist; such a scientist, say his detractors, could hardly be religious. Einstein’s view of religion did not include a personal God, which in the first half of the twentieth century was tantamount to saying he was atheistic. But no atheist spent so much time, and put so much thought, into celebrating God. And perhaps no physicist ever considered so deeply the link between science and religion. When asked how he accounted for being both a scientist and a man known for religious musings, Einstein replied: “Well, I do not think that it is necessarily the case that science and religion are natural opposites. In fact, I think that there is a very close connection between the two. Further, I think that science without religion is lame and, conversely, that religion without science is blind. Both are important and should work hand-in-hand. It seems to me that whoever doesn’t wonder about the truth in religion and in science might as well be dead.”

Then there are the theological issues raised by Einstein’s scientific discoveries. For example, Hindu philosophers have frequently suggested that Einstein’s famed equation, E=mc2 (that mass and energy are different manifestations of the same thing), is remarkably parallel to certain concepts in Hindu philosophy. Other aspects of his work, such as the mutability of time, have intriguing parallels in the philosophies of India. At the request of Hinduism Today who gave me the assignment despite my lack of philosophical credentials I ventured into the fascinating world of Albert Einstein’s religious beliefs and the theological consequences of his scientific discoveries.

Born to Jewish parents in Germany in 1879, Albert Einstein’s first education was at a strict Catholic school in Munich, where order and discipline were instilled in the students. The experience left him with a lifelong disdain of regimentation and a distrust of authority figures. Apparently to balance the Catholicism Albert was learning in primary school, his parents hired a distant relative to tutor him in the fundamentals of Judaism. These studies sparked a spiritual interest in young Albert, who began preparing for his bar mitzvah, the religious rite Jewish boys undergo when turning 13. He eagerly read the scriptures of his faith and even gave up eating pork. While other boys were dreaming of becoming soldiers and going to war, Einstein abhorred the thought of being in the military. “When I grow up, I don’t want to be one of those poor people, ” he told his parents. He would remain a devout pacifist throughout his life. He spent a lot of time deep in thought, and he credited his trait of profoundly wondering about things with helping him in his scientific endeavors. Einstein even believed his childlike curiosity, allowing him to think without boundaries, set the stage for his discovery of the relativity theory as an adult.

Einstein maintained a deep interest in his Jewish studies until a family friend lent him several books on natural science. Suddenly, he viewed the world through an empirical lens. He wrote in his autobiography: “Through the reading of popular scientific books, I soon reached the conviction that a lot in the Bible stories could not be true. The result was downright fanatical freethinking, combined with the impression that young people were being lied to by the state: it was a shattering discovery.” Einstein turned his back on organized religion and refused to take his bar mitzvah; he was, therefore, not a proper member of the Jewish community something that might have later become an issue had he taken up Israel’s 1952 offer to be the country’s second president.

The young Einstein soon focused his attention on geometry, finding in Euclid’s axiomatic-deductive method a clarity and certainty that he had not found in the Torah and Talmud of his Jewish instructions. From higher mathematics it was only a short and logical step to the world of philosophical thought. With an analytical mind and a passion for deep thinking, he was equal to the task of absorbing Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, a complex work addressing issues of human existence.

The influence of Spinoza

Einstein most admired the seventeenth-century Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, whose writings he had discovered in his twenties. In Spinoza he found a kindred spirit. Both were solitary, pensive Jews who were eventually alienated by their religious heritage. Einstein was especially impressed by Spinoza’s major work, Ethics, in which the philosopher uses Euclidean geometry to prove the validity of ethical ideas. Spinoza argued that “God, or substance, consisting of infinite attributes, of which each expresses eternal and infinite essentiality, necessarily exists.” According to Spinoza, infinite substance is indivisible. “God is One, hence, in the nature of things, only one substance is given, ” Spinoza wrote in Ethics. Philosophically, his position that whatever exists is a part of a single substance is called, in Western philosophy, “monism.” A similar concept exists within many forms of Hindu philosophy.

Spinoza believed in a form of pantheism, from the Greek pan and theos, meaning “everything is God.” Adherence to monism specifically, his belief in pantheism has parallels with the tenets of several Hindu systems of thought, including Advaita Vedanta. The common scientific view is that there is nothing but the physical universe that we can see and measure with our instruments. What separates Spinoza, and later Einstein, from this is two-fold. One, that “what exists ” likely extends far beyond our human ability to perceive and analyze it, and two, that “what exists ” is divine, Godly and not inert matter.

Some place Spinoza’s philosophy under the heading of modified pantheism, in which God is believed to be the reality behind nature. In this way his philosophy differs from Sankara’s Advaita Vedanta, in which Brahman alone is reality and all else is illusion. In his Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, William Reese calls Advaita Vedanta “Acosmic Pantheism, ” the belief that God is in and beyond the manifest world, which does not enjoy true existence.

But Spinoza’s view is similar to the view of Saiva Siddhanta and several others systems that the universe is the body and mind of God, while at the same time God transcends the universe. It’s a difficult task to compare these Western and Eastern philosophies, not only because they use different terminology, but because the Western philosophies are generally reasoned out, while the Eastern philosophies rely more upon meditative experience and insight. One also has to keep in mind that from the 17th century onward, in Europe and America, Western religion was under full-scale attack from the emerging philosophy and discoveries of science. The relationship between science and religion in the West remains largely hostile. Not so in the East.

Spinoza’s views on religion therefore provided something of a way around the hostilities, and they validated ideas that were already germinating in Einstein’s mind. “I am fascinated by Spinoza’s pantheism, ” he said, “but admire even more his contribution to modern thought, because he is the first philosopher to deal with the soul and body as one, and not two separate things.” Einstein viewed the human being as a single unit, and scoffed at the idea of a soul which transcended death.

“I am not an atheist.”

Einstein’s ideas on spirituality enjoyed some influence due to his revolutionary work in physics. Some theologians felt threatened by his scientific theories, and Einstein was frequently asked to contribute articles about religion, perhaps in part to demonstrate he was not an atheist attempting to disprove the existence of God or to demonstrate he was, since both sides interpreted Einstein’s ideas to suit their own agenda. These articles, interviews and essays are some of the best evidence we have of Einstein’s philosophy.

One, titled “Science and Religion, ” presented at the 1940 Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in New York, became the center of controversy. “A person who is religiously enlightened, ” he wrote, “appears to me to be one who has, to the best of his ability, liberated himself from the fetters of his selfish desires and is preoccupied with thoughts, feelings and aspirations to which he clings because of their superpersonal value.” He then went on to define religion as “the age-old endeavor of mankind to become clearly and completely conscious of these values and goals and constantly to strengthen and extend their effect.”

Einstein concluded his paper with a statement about the conflict between science and religion, which he believed has its root in the concept of a personal God. Theologians attending the conference were in an uproar, misinterpreting Einstein’s statement as a denial of God. He was asked straight out if he believed in God, and EINSTEIN replied: “I believe in Spinoza’s God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings.” One faction took this to mean Einstein was a believer in God as they understood God. An opposing camp said Einstein’s believing in Spinoza’s nonpersonal God was the same as believing in no God at all.

In an attempt to define why and in what way he was “religious, ” Einstein said, “Try and penetrate with our limited means the secrets of nature and you will find that, behind all the discernible concatenations, there remains something subtle, intangible and inexplicable. Veneration for this force beyond anything that we can comprehend is my religion. To that extent I am, in point of fact, religious.”

One person asked Einstein to define God. He replied in this fashion: “I’m not an atheist, and I don’t think I can call myself a pantheist. We are in the position of a little child entering a huge library filled with books in many languages. The child knows someone must have written those books. It does not know how. It does not understand the languages in which they are written. The child dimly suspects a mysterious order in the arrangement of the books, but doesn’t know what it is. That, it seems to me, is the attitude of even the most intelligent human being toward God. We see the universe marvelously arranged and obeying certain laws, but only dimly understand these laws. Our limited mind grasps the mysterious force that moves the constellations.”

Einstein was blunt in his rejection of the central tenets of Western religion. “I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, ” he said, “or has a will of the kind that we experience in ourselves. Neither can I, nor would I want to, conceive of an individual that survives his physical death; let feeble souls, from fear or absurd egoism, cherish such thoughts. I am satisfied with the mystery of the eternity of life and with the awareness and a glimpse of the marvelous structure of the existing world, together with the devoted striving to comprehend a portion, be it ever so tiny, of the Reason that manifests itself in nature.”

An unusual aspect of Einstein’s beliefs, again following Spinoza, was in “determinism, ” the position that every event or occurrence is determined, that is, could not have happened other than it did. For Spinoza, the feeling of being free is simply the state of ignorance concerning the cause. Einstein’s belief in determinism was in part behind his lack of acceptance of quantum mechanics, which held one could not deduce the future state of the universe from the present one. He famously said, “God does not play dice with the universe.” However, despite his best efforts, he could not disprove quantum mechanics.

The “cosmic religion ”

Einstein summarized his philosophy in what he termed the “cosmic religion, ” which is characterized by a feeling of awe and an experience of the mysterious that he declared to be the source of his religiosity. In this experience, God does not punish or reward. Although his cosmic religion does not include a personal God (i.e., Ishvara), which he believed was devised due to fear of the unexplained, Einstein believed, “The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling, which knows no dogma and no God conceived in man’s image; so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it.” At this point, for Einstein, religion and science meet, for the cosmic religious experience “is the strongest and noblest driving force behind scientific research.”

In response to a question about whether or not modern science can offer spiritual insights where organized religion has failed, Einstein said, “Speaking of the spirit that informs modern scientific investigations, I am of the opinion that all the finer speculations in the realm of science spring from deep religious feeling, and that without such feeling they would not be fruitful. I also believe that this kind of religiousness, which makes itself felt today in scientific investigations is the only creative religious activity of our time.” Einstein said that science cannot teach men the importance of ethics and morality, for the simple reason that science deals with what is, and ethics with what should be.

Meeting Tagore

Among the most famous Einstein dialogues took place in 1930, when Rabindranath Tagore visited him in Germany. Einstein reserved the highest admiration for Tagore, as well as Mahatma Gandhi, and they, in turn, regarded him with esteem. They were united in their concern for the poor and the state of the human condition. Tagore and Einstein shared a love of music and the belief that religion is not found in rituals and tradition. But the poet and the physicist disagreed on at least one point. When Einstein said he agreed with Tagore’s concept that beauty is inseparable from man, but that he did not agree that the same held true for truth, Tagore asked, “Why not? Truth is realized through man.” After a long pause, Einstein replied simply, “I cannot prove that my conception is right, but that is my religion.” Tagore finally declared, “If there be some truth which has no sensuous or rational relation to the human mind, it will ever remain as nothing so long as we remain human beings.” To this Einstein replied, “Then I am more religious than you are!”

Relativity in the light of Vedanta

In Einstein’s theory of relativity, E=mc2, he postulates that mass is equivalent to energy. Both space and time, deduced Einstein, are no longer absolutes. Consider his theory in light of the Vedanta system of Hindu philosophy. All matter throughout the universe is the outcome of one primal matter called akasha. Moreover, all force, whether gravitational or electromagnetic, is the outcome of one cosmic energy called prana. Prana acting on akasha is creating or projecting the universe. Einstein had thus proven mathematically what Vedantists had known for years. Some theologians have taken the theory of relativity one step further, speculating that Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence also accounts for energy and matter as true functions of each other. A God of pure energy could thus become an avatar a doctrine held by some Hindus, Tibetan Buddhists and Christians.

Relativity may also be explored in terms of the system of 36 tattvas, or categories of existence, common to several systems of Hindu philosophy. These begin with shuddha maya, pure spiritual energy, the first evolutes, emanations or creations out of God. The first five tattvas are forms of consciousness, while the next seven are forms of spiritual-magnetic energy, including time (number 7, kala tattva). The final 24 consist of magnetic-gross energy, and include the mental faculties, organs of perception and action and finally the elements ether, air, fire, water and earth. The system of tattvas also regards matter as a form of energy. The major difference is that Einstein did not appear to speak in terms of consciousness as Hindus do, and his religious concepts seemed for the most part to deal with physical reality and not these higher realms of knowing or the subtle worlds spoken of in the Vedas.

The search for a unified field theory

In 1933, Einstein renounced his German citizenship and accepted a position in the United States at the new Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He spent the rest of his life as an American citizen in Princeton with his wife, Elsa. They lived in a simple house, and most mornings he walked a mile or so to the Institute to work on his unified field theory. He was attempting to link all known phenomena to explain the nature and behavior of all matter and energy in existence, work that caused some excitement among nonscientists then and now. Paramahansa Yogananada praised the physicist in his 1946 autobiography. “Reducing the cosmical structure to variations on a single law, ” Yogananada wrote, “Einstein has reached across the ages to the rishis who proclaimed a sole fabric of creation: a protean maya.”

More recently, Eknath Easwaran wrote in his commentary on the Bhagavad Gita that Einstein’s quest is a theme found in Hinduism: “One of the most fervent hopes of Einstein was to find an overriding law of nature in which all laws of matter and energy would be unified. This is the driving question in some of the ancient Hindu scriptures, too. Mundaka Upanishad 1.1.3 asks, ‘What is That by knowing which all other things may be known?’ ”

Einstein’s search for proof of a unified field eluded him his entire life, although his perception of existence seemed as clear to him as it was to the rishis. He wrote, “A human being is a part of the whole, called by us ‘Universe,’ a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as something separated from the rest, a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. Nobody is able to achieve this completely, but the striving for such achievement is in itself a part of the liberation and a foundation for inner security.”

For more information on Albert Einstein, log on to the new Einstein web site, http://www.alberteinstein.info. additional references are “Einstein and Religion ” by Max Jammer and “Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion ” by William Reese.

• TKS says:

Vedic Science – Time travel proofs in Hinduism – Theory of Relativity

Time Travel is one of the most mysterious question in science. Hundreds of books and thousands of articles have been published on this one subject.But is the time travel really possible or is it just a fantasy? If seen , this is a question on which not all people appear unanimous. Some are in favor of it and some people consider it as just imagination ,but on studying Hinduism ,we have been tried to tell this through many stories through many verses indicates that there is really such a thing as time travel.In today’s article we will discuss on this topic and we will understand time travel by comparing it on two sides. The first aspect is based on modern science and theories of scientists and in another aspect we will understand time travel based on Hinduism texts.
Let us first know what exactly is time travel?

What is Time Travel?
Time travel is an idea according to which we can come forward or backward in time that is, we can come in the past or in the future,But really is it just an idea or it is possible to do it or not .To know this we will discuss time travel in two parts,first part based on modern science and the second part is based on Sanatan Vedic religion.

Time Travel according to modern science
The scientists we know about time travel today are Sir Einstein and Sir Stephen Hawkins.Let me introduce you to time travel through simple words. Einstein explained time travel through the special theory of relativity and through the General theory of relativity. He said that if we travel at the speed of light,then we will be successful in time travel.But it is impossible for an object to get the speed of light because our science has not developed so far that we can travel at a speed relative to the speed of light.Einstein believed that this universe does not have three but four dimensions, and this is the fourth dimension, the dimension of time. He told us that light can be turned. Whereas since childhood we have been reading that light moves in a straight line, but it would require strong gravity to turn light. He said that time is also related to gravity ,where gravity will be more, time will be slower and where gravity will less, time will pass faster, this has also been proved on the basis of experiments. If we take two atomic clocks and place one on the satellite and another on the Earth, we will find a subtle difference between them.Atomic clocks are capable of measuring significantly shorter time periods, which shows that time has the effect of speed and gravity.Because the speed of the satellite was not very fast, so this difference was quite small.Stephen Hawking’s ideas seem to be very similar to Einstein’s.He believed that we can do time travel with the help of three things. The first is, with the help of the Wormhole , you must be thinking, what is wormhole ? Stephen Hawkings says that there is a rift in everything, whatever it is, if we look at the subtle level, then there is a rift in everything. Whether it is a glass or a balloon, in this way there is also a rift in time.Einstein considered time to be the fourth dimension, on the basis of which he says that time is present everywhere and cracks also occur in time. If we can make these cracks bigger, then perhaps time travel can be possible.
They say that we can also time travel with the help of black holes, because they have a lot of gravity, that is time will be very slow there, but we have to pass through the black hole at the speed of light so that we do not get trapped in that black hole and time travel will possible.
And the last one with which time travel is possible is to travel at the speed of light which Einstein had already told to the world.
The theories of both scientists show that time travel is possible only in the future and not in the past, because if time travel happens in past then it brings a lot of contradictions with itself ,like if a person kills himself by time travel in his past, then when did he time travel, and how can a person kill himself.This creates a paradox which shows that time travel is only in future not in past.

Time Travel according to Hinduism
When we study Hindu scriptures, we find a lot of evidence that indicates that time travel is really possible.

1.Kakudmi
Kakudmi a king of the middle Satyuga whose daughter was named Revati but Revati had some abilities that made her different from others.
Seeing her merits, his father takes her to Lord Brahma and urges him that there is no one on earth who is capable of marrying Revati,
After listening to the king, Brahma says to him, that King you have reached the Brahmlok, but 27 Chatur Yuga have passed on the earth and the earth has moved much ahead of its time, neither your relationships are alive on the earth, then King urges Brahmadev and says ,what will be happen with Revati,Then Lord Brahma chose Lord Krishna’s brother Balarama for Revati.It is clear here that through the history or stories present in Hinduism texts, there are indications that time travel may actually take place.

I had heard that the Srimad Bhagwat Geeta has the answer to every question you have. But when I wanted to know about time travel, then I got a shloka of Srimad Bhagwat Geeta.

That is, 1 day of Brahma is equal to 1000 Mahayuga, according to this, 1 day of Brahma is equal to four trillion 32 billion years of the earth. this refers to the Theory of Relativity it means Brahma lives in some place or dimension where gravity is more than our imagination, means, the time passes more slowly in that dimension.

3.Concept of Atma
According to the Bhagavad Gita, the soul is immortal, no one can bite it, nor can it be burnt or killed, it cannot be divide into two parts and it can be only one not two.But if we travel time in the past then our past form also has to be there, because in the past we were there while the soul could not be divided so it is impossible to time travel in the past, but we can do time travel in future,because then our form will be in the future and we will be absent for the present time.

All these things show that time travel is possible according to Sanatan Dharma(Hinduism) .

• TKS says:

TIME TRAVEL: MAHABHARATA

MAHABHARATA, CIRCA 400BCE

One of the very first time travel stories recorded in history appears in the Hindu epic, Mahabharata, speculated to be written as early as 400BC. The story follows a king, his daughter, and their search for a perfect suitor.

Revati was the only daughter of King Kakudmi, a powerful monarch who ruled Kusasthali, a prosperous and advanced kingdom under the sea. Thinking no one could prove to be good enough to marry his beautiful daughter, Kakudmi took Revati with him to Brahmaloka, the home of Brahma, to ask the god’s advice about finding a suitable husband for her.

Brahma was listening to a musical performance when they arrived, and so they waited patiently until the performance was finished. Finally, King Kakudmi humbly bowed and made his request:

“O Brahm! To whom shall I betroth this daughter? I have come to you to ask on this point I have searched for many princes and seen also a good many of them and none of them is to my liking and so my mind is not at rest.”

Brahma laughed at the foolishness of the King.

“O King! The princes that you thought would become the bridegroom of your daughter, all died; their sons and grandsons and their friends even have all passed away.”

Time, Brahma goes on to explain, runs differently on different planes of existence. During the time they had waited in Brahmaloka to see him, 27 chatur-yugas, had passed on Earth. Everything that Kakudmi had and owned, his friends and family, his sons and wife, his armies and treasures, had vanished with the time that had passed. The King and his daughter were overcome with astonishment and grief for everything they had lost, but Brahma comforted them, and recommended a worthy husband currently on earth: Balarama, the twin brother of Krishna.

What is really interesting though, is how similar their view of time was 2500 years ago to how physicists and astronomers conceptualize space-time today. In the theory of relativity as proposed by Albert Einstein, time is relative to the observer’s frame of reference — it depends on the observer’s motion and strength of gravity. For instance, one could argue that time here on earth runs slower than in space because gravity slows the passage of time.

In the same way that Einstein says time is relative to the observer’s frame of reference — it depends on the observer’s motion and strength of gravity, Brahma tells the father and daughter 2500 years before Einstein was even born that time runs differently on different planes of existence. That is, during the time they had waited in Brahmaloka to see Brahma 27 chatur-yugas had passed on Earth. Everything that Kakudmi had and owned, his friends and family, his sons and wife, his armies and treasures, had vanished with the time that had passed.

Hindu philosophy was familiar with the concept that time is relative and many passages on the Vedic scriptures continuously point out that the cosmic time of the gods is different than the time on earth.

http://the-wanderling.com/maha02.gif

ONE CHATUR-YUGA IS EQUIVALENT TO 4,320,000 HUMAN YEARS

Were King Kakudmi and his daughter two unwitting time travelers? What they thought were just minutes in front god Brahma, millennia had taken place at home. When they came back, they did so to a vastly different place.

http://the-wanderling.com/maha06.png

Wormholes, although theoretical, are ‘tunnels’ or shortcuts predicted by Einstein’s theory of relativity that link two places in space-time — as visualized above — where negative energy pulls space and time into the mouth of a tunnel, emerging in another time or place in the universe, or possibly even another universe. Wormholes remain hypothetical but have been used in science fiction and films as conduits for time travel, for example as found in the movie Time Bandits (1981), where their locations are shown on a celestial map. Notice the circle within a circle on the map. It is almost as though you are above looking top down into an Einstein-Rosen Bridge.

Today, we so often think of time as an arrow moving in one direction, with a beginning, middle and end. But it is interesting to look at different cultures and how they view time. Their perceptions help us look at time, and the idea of time travel, a little bit differently.

NOTE: The Vishnu Purana and the Garga Samhita narrate the same tale of Revati albeit with some variation, so too as found in “THE SEVENTH BOOK, Chapter VIII, On the King Revata and the Solar Dynasty” of the Devi Bhagavata Purana.

“It is widely believed that spacetime must be both orientable and time-orientable. Arguments are that there is no evidence of a lack of orientability and that a nonorientable spacetime would be incompatible with the observed violations of P (parity) and T (time reversal invariance).”

• TKS says:

The Concept of Kala or Time in Hinduism
Time in Hinduism

The ancient Indians were not aware of the theory of relativity. But they were familiar with the concept of space and relative time. They believed that the duration of time changed from world to world and that our time was not the absolute. They distinguished between the cosmic time of the gods and the earthly time of ours.

According to them, the gods were immortal, who lived longer and more intense lives. They were subject to a different time frame and had their own periods of activity and rest. These constituted their days and nights. When the highest Supreme Self was awake, they believed, He would expand outwardly and manifest his objective worlds, and when it was time for rest, He would withdraw into Himself and bring the worlds and the entire creation to a temporary halt. This is similar to the expansion and contraction of the material universe according to the modern theories of the origin of the universe.

In Hinduism time is known as kala. Kala means both time and death. Time is personified as the god of death, Yama, because death is a limiting factor in human life. Kala as god of death determines how long a person should live upon earth. So death and time are associated together. An individual’s time upon earth begins with his birth and ends with his death. However for the soul, there is no death. It has no time because it is without a beginning and without an end.

The concept of time in Hinduism is based on our own experience of time as recurring and predictable phenomena measurable in terms of units such as days and nights, or months and years. Just as there is regularity to our days and nights, there is regularity to the days and nights of gods. This regularity is perceived as the Rta (rita) or the cosmic rhythm manifested by God. Rta is inherent in every aspect of creation. In the human body it is the biorhythm as well as the beat of the heart and the breath of the lungs. In the universe it is inherent in the configuration of the planetary bodies and their fixed movements. What protects this regularity of rhythm is Dharma, the eternal law, which is but an aspect of God Himself.

Mentioned below are some important beliefs of Hinduism associated with time as an aspect of creation. Some of these beliefs are also common to Buddhism and Jainism. However, in Buddhism and Jainism there is no creator. Time is an aspect of this illusory world and it exists as long as we are subject to the process of becoming or change.

Hinduism perceives time as cyclical. This is based on our own experience of time in terms of days and nights. We see this cyclical pattern in days, weeks, months, years, seasons and yugas or epochs. So from this perspective, time is a never-ending cyclical process, which is both repetitive and exhaustive. In a sense it is limited. In another it is eternal. From a spiritual perspective, time exists when we are in a state of duality but disappears when we enter into the state of unity or samadhi.
Each time-cycle has three components, srishti, sthithi and laya. Srishthi means creation. Sthithi means continuation and laya means dissolution. Each time cycle begins with creation, continues for certain duration of time and then dissolves into nothingness. After a brief respite, the cycle begins all over again. These three aspects of time are under the control of the Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. Brahma is responsible for creation, Vishnu for existence and Siva for dissolution. We can see the same divisions in a day also. Each day is created in the early hours, continues throughout the day and then finally dissolves into darkness. We can see the same pattern in life also, as childhood, adulthood and old age.
The Hindu calculation of time comes to us from sage Ganita who is mentioned in the Manusmriti and the Mahabharata. He calculated the duration of each cycle of creation in human years. He divided the cosmic time into Kalpas, which is a day and night in the time and space of Brahma. It is considered to be equal to 8.64 billion years (Vishnu Purana). Each Kalpa consists of two Artha Kalpas of 4.32 billion years each. They are the day and night of Brahman. Each Kalpa is further divided into 1000 maha yugas. Each maha yuga is again divided into four yugas, namely krita yuga, treat yuga, dvapara yuga and kali yuga. Their duration varies. Krita yuga the first in the series has the longest duration of 1.728 million years and kali yuga, which is the last and the current, has a duration of only 432000 years. The durations of other divisions are mentioned in the table at the bottom of this article.
The lifespan of Brahma is considered 100 Brahma years, which is known as Maha Kalpa or Parardha. It is equal to 311.04 trillion human years.
A day in the life of gods is equal to one year upon earth. It is divided into day and night. The day is known as uttarayana and the night as dakshinayana. They are equal to 180 days each.
In Hindu tradition there is another division of time called manvantara. A manavantara is the period during which the earth is ruled by a particular Manu, the father of man. The word ‘man’ comes from the Sanskrit word Manu. According to tradition, a new Manu manifests at the beginning of each manvantara to produce a new race of human beings. Each manvantara lasts for about 71 mahayugas or approximately 308 million years. In each manvantara along with Manu appear seven seers or rishis and one Indra. In all 14 Manus appear in each Kalpa over a period of 1000 mahayugas in succession. The current Manu is 7th in the line and is known as Vaivasvata Manu.
The current yuga or epoch is known as Kaliyuga. It is the last in the cycle of the current mahayuga or great epoch. Its calculated duration is 432000 years. We are not sure presently whether we are at the beginning, in the middle or near the end of Kaliyuga. If we accept the theory that Kaliyuga began with the passing away of Lord Krishna some 6000 or 7000 years ago, then probably we are in the early phase of Kaliyuga and have a long way to go.
Hindu Purunas contain several narrative accounts in which celestial events span over longer durations of time. They describe gods waging wars, or practicing meditation or making love for hundreds and thousands of years.

Is Time Real Or Illusory?
In Hinduism time is regarded as an aspect of creation. It exists only so long as we are bound to the things of this world through our senses. Time is a mental concept created by the movement of our senses, the celestial objects and our perceptions. It is part of the illusion in which we live and which we take for real. In God’s consciousness there are no divisions of time. There is only the present moment, one continuous, indivisible and indistinguishable state of existence.

Time is also regarded as an aspect of Prakriti or Nature. It is one of the 36 tattvas or principles of creation recognized in Saivism. Prakriti subjects the boundless individual souls of pure consciousness to the limitations of time (kaala), space (niyathi), knowledge (vidya), passion (raga) and power (kala) and binds them to the cycle of births and rebirths. When beings transcend these five limitations through the grace of Siva, they regain their pure consciousness (chit) and become free.

The Hindu view time is responsible for absence of accurate historical records of the Indian subcontinent. The ancient Indians did not deem it necessary to record events of a world they believed was illusory. Besides, they believed the events by themselves were of no significance unless they had some relevance to the gods and the percepts of Dharma.

Tables Showing Different Divisions of Time
Divisions of Cosmic Time
Name of the Division Duration in human years Remarks
Artha Kalpa 4.32 billion years A day or night of Brahma
Kalpa 8.64 billion years A complete day of Brahma
Mahayuga 4.32 million years A great epoch consisting of 4 yugas or epochs
Krita yuga 1.728 million years Golden age or age of truth of four feet (charana) length
Treta yuga 1.296 million years The Second epoch of three feet (charana) length
Dvapara yuga 864000 years The third epoch of two feet (charana) length
Kali yuga 432000 years The current epoch, the age of darkness of one feet length.
Manvantara 308 million years Manu is the progenitor of human race.
A year of Brahma 3.110415 trillion years 360 Kalpas
Mahakalpa 311.0415 trillion years 100 years in Brahma’s time and space
Divisions of Earth Time in Hindu Calendar as per the Puranas and Epics
Name of the Division Duration in human years Remarks
Truti One twinkle of an eye
Tatpara 100 trutis
Nimesha 30 Tatparas
Kastha 30 Nimeshas
kala 30 kasthas
muhurtha 30 kalas roughly 45 – 50 minutes
ahoratra 30 muhurtas Day and Nigtht
masa 30 days One lunar month
Paksha 15 days One half of a lunar month
Ayana 6 months or half a year Uttarayana is the day of gods, and daskhinayana, their night
Divine Year 360 years One year of gods
Charana 432,000 years The length of the feet of Time (Kala)
Hindu Months
Month Corresponding Zodiac Sign
Chaitra Mesha
Vaishakha Vrishabha
Jyeshtha Mithuna
Sravana Simha
Ashvin Tula
Kartik Vrshchika
Agrahyana Dhanush
Paushta Makara
Magha Magha
Phalguna Meena
Hindu Seasons
Season Corresponding Months
Vasanta (Spring) Chaita and Vaishakha
Varsha (Rainy Season) Sravana and Bhadra
Hemant (Winter) Magha and Phalguna
60 Year Cycles
Hindus also follow a 60 year cycle in which each year is given a specific name which repeat after every 60 years.

Prabhava
Vibhava
Shukla
Pramoda
Prajāpati
Āngirasa
Shrīmukha
Bhāva
Yuvan
Dhātri
Īshvara
Bahudhānya
Pramāthin
Vikrama
Vrisha
Chitrabhānu
Svabhānu
Tārana
Pārthiva
Vyaya
Virodhin
Vikrita 25. Khara
Nandana
Vijaya
Jaya
Manmatha
Durmukha
Hemalambin
Vilambin
Vikārin
Shārvari
Plava
Shubhakrit
Shobhana
Krodhin
Vishvāvasu
Parābhava
Plavanga
Kīlaka
Saumya
Sādhārana
Virodhikrit
Paritāpin
Pramādin
Ānanda
Rākshasa
Anala
Pingala
Kālayukti
Siddhārthin
Raudra
Durmati
Dundubhi
Rudhirodgārin
Raktāksha
Krodhana
Akshaya
Nakshatras or Daily Stars
According to Hindu mythology, there are 27 stars or nakshatras who are the daughters of either Daksha or Kashyapa, but wives of Chandra, the moon god. The moon god spends each night with one particular star, with whom he appears in the sky. According to Hindu astronomy, the sky is divided into 27 divisions. During its monthly cycle, the moon passes through each division roughly one per day. According to another tradition the 27 nakshatras are associated with the nine planets or navagrahas, with each planetary deity ruling over three particular stars. During the 27 day lunar cycle, the planetary gods enter into their respective star mansions and spend nine days with each of their three stars. The names of the 27 stars along with their controlling planets are mentioned below.

# Name Controlling Planet
1 Ashvinī Ketu
2 Bharanī Shukra (Venus)
3 Krittikā Ravi (Sun)
4 Rohini Chandra (Moon)
5 Mrigashīrsha Mangala (Mars)
6 Ārdrā Rahu
7 Punarvasu Guru (Jupiter)
8 Pushya Shani (Saturn)
9 Āshleshā Budh (Mercury)
10 Maghā Ketu (south lunar node)
11 Pūrva or Pūrva halgunī Shukra (Venus)
12 Uttara or Uttara Phalgunī Surya (Sun)
13 Hasta Chandra (Moon)
14 Chitrā Mangala (Mars
15 Svātī Rahu
16 Vishākhā Guru (Jupiter)
17 Anurādhā Shani (Saturn)
18 Jyeshtha Budh (Mercury)
19 Mūla Ketu
20 Pūrva Ashādhā Shukra (Venus)
21 Uttara Ashādhā Surya (Sun)
22 Shravana Chandra (Moon)
23 Dhanishta Mangala (Mars)
24 Shatabhishā Rahu
27 Revatī Budh (Mercury)

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

The value of perihelion shift of planets is constant. It will not be the three body problem or many body problem. And it will be the same to binary star.

• KL says:

Hinduism: Where Science and Spirituality Intersect

Some would comment that faith is only necessary when it comes to matters of religion and that science is based on empirical evidence. Although this sounds nice, it’s not 100 percent accurate.
Pandit Dasa, HuffPost USI lived as a monk in New York City for 15 years and have been teaching Mindfulness and Meditation in Corporations, Governments, and Colleges

A couple of years ago, I was invited to a panel discussion at Columbia University on science and religion. Not having a background in science, I was a bit uncomfortable with participating, but the group organizing the event really wanted an Eastern/Hindu perspective on how science fits into the Hindu philosophy and tradition. Hesitatingly, I agreed.

Right before the event began, I approached the professor on the panel to say hello. We had met once before, and as I stretched out my hand for a shake I noticed a hesitation on his part in return. Frankly, he didn’t look very happy to see me, but I didn’t make much of it. During the dialogue and discussion, I noticed he was very aggressive and took every opportunity to belittle all the aspects of spirituality and yoga, of which he had little or no knowledge about in the first place. I realized at that moment that there was a new breed of fanatics on the rise and this breed had nothing to do with religion.

I realized from this discussion that there is a more mature way to approach this dialogue, and in course of doing research for this dialogue, I discovered a wonderful synthesis between my faith and the cutting edge of science. It helped me to understand that science and spirituality aren’t mutually exclusive. I also saw how much faith we place in the field of science and its theories.

Some would comment that faith is only necessary when it comes to matters of religion and that science is based on empirical evidence. Although this sounds nice, it’s not 100 percent accurate. For example, we all believe in the existence of the atom. But how many people on the planet have actually seen an atom with their own eyes? I’m not in any way denying the existence of the atom. Nor do I dis-believe the people who have measured its existence. The point made here is that we are placing faith in those who have done the experiment and we are accepting their results. The masses are placing faith in the few who have done the experiment.

Another item we place implicit faith in is the “Big Bang Theory,” which tells us that the universe began 15-20 billion years ago from a single point. Who can prove to us the reality of a phenomena that took place tens of billions of years ago? There’s no instant replay when we’re dealing with life and time. We can’t be shown what happened that far in the past. There may be some evidence and reason to believe that this is how it happened, but at the end of the day we can’t know for sure and that’s where faith comes in.

This video clip from the famous astronomer/cosmoslogist Carl Sagan reflects a similar line of thought.

In a recent article, in the U.S. News and World Report, physicist Roger Penrose theorized that the Big Bang might be one in a cycle of such events, suggesting that the universe has had multiple existences. This is common knowledge to one familiar with Vedic philosophy and cosmology, which very clearly indicates that the universe has had many births and deaths.

The centuries-old wisdom of the Vedic texts doesn’t stop there. They claim that our universe is just one of many universes, a concept entertained by modern science and referred to as “the multiverse theory.” The description given is that our universe is one mustard seed in a bag full of a practically uncountable number of mustard seeds. This concept is toyed with in famous Hollywood movies such as “Contact” and “Men In Black.”

In the West, Einstein is credited with the Theory of Relativity. However, one might be quite surprised to learn that there are multiple examples of it in the Puranic texts of India. Einstein’s hypothetical experiment known as the “twin paradox” suggests that if one of a pair of twins travels to outer space at high speed, while the other remains on earth, when the space traveling twin returns, he will be younger than his counterpart on earth. The following passages from the Bhagavat Purana communicates the relativity of time:

“… One’s life endures for only one hundred years, in terms of the times in the different planets… Eternal time is certainly the controller of different dimensions, from that of the atom up to the super-divisions of the duration of Brahmā’s life; but, nevertheless, it is controlled by the Supreme. Time can control only those who are body conscious, even up to the Satyaloka or the other higher planets of the universe.”

There is also a story from the Puranas which parallels Einstein’s hypothetical experiment. A yogi, upon exiting the earthly realm for the higher planetary realms, was informed by the inhabitants of these higher realms that millions of years had instantly passed on Earth in the mere moments since he had entered the higher realms. They also told him that all of his relatives and everyone he had ever known was deceased. We can pass this off as myth or fable, but one should ponder how these texts of ancient India are coming up with concepts that are so close to modern scientific theories.

There is a wonderful synergy between science and spirituality within the Vedic tradition, and I don’t believe there is a real border dividing them. It’s all just wisdom and knowledge, which is what the term Veda means. These are all truths that are meant to inform us of the world and universe we inhabit so that we can understand our place in it. These truths help us to ultimately transcend the realm of matter, shed the material body we inhabit and endeavor to re-enter the spiritual realm.

• KL says:

Theory of Relativity, Time Travel in Bhagavata Purana & Tripura Rahasya

Time travel and theory of relativity are still science-fiction subjects for present day human beings.
But in puranas, they’ve been discussed multiple times.
One such classic example is that of King Kakudmi and his daughter Revati, who travelled to different loka (dimension) and returned to earth in future time.

Kakudmi was a descendant of the Sun Dynasty (Suryavansha).Kakudmi Revati Time Travel
Kakudmi’s daughter Revati was so beautiful and so accomplished that when she reached a marriageable age, Kakudmi, thinking no one upon earth was worthy of her, went to the Creator himself, Lord Brahma, to seek his advice about a suitable husband for his daughter.

When they arrived, Brahma was listening to a musical performance by the Gandharvas, so they waited patiently until the performance was finished. Then, Kakudmi bowed humbly, made his request and presented his shortlist of candidates. Brahma laughed loudly, and explained that time runs differently on different planes of existence, and that during the short time they had waited in Brahma-loka to see him, 27 chaturyugas (a cycle of four yugas, totalling 108 yugas, or Ages of Man [refer Concept of Time Division in Ancient India and Age of Brahma]) had passed on earth.

Brahma said to Kakudmi, “O King, all those whom you may have decided within the core of your heart to accept as your son-in-law have died in the course of time. Twenty-seven catur-yugas have already passed. Those upon whom you may have already decided are now gone, and so are their sons, grandsons and other descendants. You cannot even hear about their names.
You must therefore bestow your daughter upon some other husband, for you are now alone, and your friends, your ministers, servants, wives, kinsmen, armies, and treasures, have long since been swept away by the hand of time.”

King Kakudmi was astonished on hearing this news.
However, Brahma comforted him, and added that Vishnu, the preserver, was currently incarnate on earth in the forms of Krishna and Balarama, and he recommended Balarama as a worthy husband for Revati.

Kakudmi and Revati then returned to earth, which they regarded as having left only just a short while ago. They were shocked by the changes that had taken place. Not only had the landscape and environment changed, but over the intervening 27 chaturyugas (mahayugas), in the cycles of human spiritual and cultural evolution, mankind was at a lower level of development than in their own time (see Ages of Man).
The Bhagavata Purana describes that they found the race of men had become “dwindled in stature, reduced in vigour, and enfeebled in intellect.”

Daughter and father found Balarama and proposed the marriage, which was accepted. Since Revati came from different time behind him, she was taller than Balarama.
So, Balaram used his plough to reduce her height according to present conditions.
Their marriage was then duly celebrated.

King Muchukunda’s time travel and Musi River

Muchukunda (ancestor of Sri Rama), son of King Mandhata, was born in the Ikshvaku dynasty (Suryavansha).
In a battle, demons dominated the deities. So, Indra the King of deities requested King Muchukunda to help them in war.
King Muchukunda agreed to help them and fought against the demons for a long time. Since the deities did not have an able commander, king Muchukunda protected them against the demonic onslaught, until the deities got an able commander like Kartikeya, the son of Lord Shiva.
Then Indra said to the king Muchukunda, “O king, we, the deities are indebted to you for the help and protection which you have given us, by sacrificing your own family life. Here in the heaven, one year equals three hundred and sixty years of the earth. Since, it has been a long time, there is no sign of your kingdom and family because it has been destroyed with the passage of time. You came here in Treta Yuga and now its Dwapara Yuga on earth.
We are happy and pleased with you, so ask for any boon except Moksha(liberation) because it is beyond our capacities“.

While fighting on the side of the deities, king Muchukunda did not get an opportunity to sleep even for a moment. Now, overcome by tiredness, he was feeling very sleepy. So, he said, “O King of the deities, I want to sleep. Anyone who dares to disturb my sleep should get burnt to ashes immediately“.
Indra said, “So be it, go to the earth and enjoy your sleep, one who awakens you would be reduced to ashes“.
After this, king Muchukunda descended to earth and selected a cave, where he could sleep without being disturbed.

Kalayavan (Yavana/Yona/Greek) warrior king was undefeated and unmatched in battle due to a boon, but he was also merciless and cruel.muchukunda kalayavana krishna
He learns that Krishna is the only person who can defeat him in battle and accepting this challenge sets out to invade Krishna’s kingdom, Mathura. When the two armies faced each other in battle, Krishna dismounts from his chariot and starts walking away, followed by Kalayavan. After a long time Krishna, followed by Kalayavan, enters a dark cave. In this cave Muchukunda was sleeping since the time he was blessed by king of deities.

The person on whom Muchkunda’s gaze falls is doomed to instantaneous death. Kalayavan in a fit of anger and unable to see in the dark attacks Muchukunda mistaking him to be Krishna. When Muchkunda opens his eyes, his gaze falls on Kalayavan who is immediately burnt to death. Krishna appears to Muchukunda in form of Ananta Padmanabha Swamy (same position in which muchukunda slept for many years).
The river which starts its flow from near that cave is now known as Muchukunda Nadi(River). In time lapse, it is known as Moosi (Musi) River, which flows through Hyderabad in Deccan Plateau, India.

Gandasailavalokanam in Tripura Rahasya (naratted by Dattatreya to Parasurama)

Tripura Rahasya, the ultimate book on Advaita Vedanta discusses a chapter about time-travel.
Mahasena, brother of Vanga King Sushena sent his army along with horse to perform Aswamedha Yagam.
When the army crossed a sage named Tangana, who was in meditation, they did not pay respect to him and proceeded further. Sage’s son noticed the insult to his father and was exasperated. He caught the sacrificial horse and fought the heroes guarding it.
They surrounded him on all sides but he together with the horse entered a hill (Gandasaila), before their eyes. Noticing his disappearance in the hill, the invaders attacked the hill. The sage’s son re-appeared with a huge army, fought the enemy, defeated them and destroyed Susena’s army. He took many prisoners of war, including all the princes and then re-entered the hill. A few followers who escaped fled to Sushena and told him everything. Sushena was surprised and said to his brother to respect the sage and bring back the horse.

Knowing the problem of king, Tangana asked his son to release the horse. But even after that Mahasena was curious to know how huge army emerged from inside a hill.
Tangana’s son made Mahasena leave his physical body outside the hill and took his ativahika sarira (astral body) inside.
As he entered, Mahasena saw the sky above, enveloped in the darkness of night and shining with stars. He ascended there and looked down below; he came to the region of the moon and was benumbed with cold. Protected by the saint, he went up to the Sun and was scorched by its rays. Again tended by the saint, he was refreshed and saw the whole region a counterpart of the Heaven. He went up to the summits of the Himalayas with the saint and was shown the whole region and also the earth. Again endowed with powerful eye-sight, he was able to see far-off lands and discovered other worlds besides this one. In the distant worlds there was darkness prevailing in some places; the earth was gold in some; there were oceans and island continents traversed by rivers and mountains; there were the heavens peopled by Indra and the Gods, the asuras, human beings, the rakshasas and other races of celestials. He also found that the saint had divided himself as Brahma in Satyaloka, as Vishnu in Vaikunta, and as Siva in Kailasa while all the time he remained as his original-self the king ruling in the present world. The king was struck with wonder on seeing the yogic power of the saint. The sage’s son said to him: ‘This sightseeing has lasted only a single day according to the standards prevailing here, whereas 1,200,000,000 years have passed by in the world you are used to. So let us return to my father.‘

Outside the hill, sage’s son made Mahasena go into sleep and united his astral body with the preserved physical body.
When Mahasena wokeup, he found the whole world to have changed.
Upon realizing that all his relatives and friends were dead during that time period, Mahasena goes into depression.
Tangana’s son takes him around the hill and says ‘See this hill’s circumference is just 1 mile, but you have seen a huge universe inside. Now what can you call as reality ?
How can you judge if one dream is reality of actually a dream, based on another dream ?
Both are dreams and reality is YOU.‘

Thus Mahasena was taught yoga and advaita philosophy.

It’s not about the story is factually true or not.
Are you able to understand the theory of relativity???
It was intentionally done in a story or mythological form so that as time passes people do not change the concept. Off course, the story has changed over time but the essence of theory of relativity remains untouched.

This is the whole point of Ramayana, Mahabharatha and other stories.
Ignore the rest, get the essence, Are you able to understand the theory of relativity???

• KL says:

The Nikola Tesla Interview hidden for 116 years!

In 1899, Tesla gave this interview which has rarely ever been published for over 100 years.

In it Tesla pulls no punches and reveals the great conspiracy of science that was well under way, the suppression of ether and the introduction of a new fake science to conceal it as well as to suppress the work of Tesla himself.

Once, in 1899, Nikola Tesla had an interview with a certain journalist, John Smith, when Tesla said, “Everything is the light.” In one of its rays is the fate of nations, each nation has its own ray in that great light source, which we see as the Sun. In this interview this greatest inventor and seer of modern time unravels a new vision of humanity which we, the light warriors of the first and the last hour, have created a century later. A must read for every Ascended Master from the PAT.

Part of this interview is dedicated to Tesla’s critics on Einstein’s theory of relativity that discards the ether as energy. I have proved in the new Theory of the Universal Law why Einstein’s theory of relativity is entirely wrong and why there is no vacuum (void), and that everything is energy. Thus I confirm Tesla’s ideas as expressed in this interview.

George, May 7, 2015

Journalist: Mr. Tesla, you have gained the glory of the man who got involved in the cosmic processes. Who are you, Mr. Tesla?

Tesla: It is a right question, Mr. Smith, and I will try to give you the right answer to it.

Journalist: Some say you’re from the country of Croatia, from the area called Lika, where together with the people are growing trees, rocks and starry sky. They say that your home village is named after the mountain flowers, and that the house, where you were born, is next to the forest and the church.

Tesla: Really, all it true. I’m proud of my Serbian origin and my Croatian homeland.

Journalist: Futurists say that the Twenty-and Twenty First Century was born in head of Nikola Tesla. They celebrate conversely magnetic field and sing hymns to Inductions engine. Their creator was called the hunter who caught the light in his net from the depths of the earth, and the warrior who captured fire from heaven. Father of alternating current will make the Physics and Chemistry dominate half the world. Industry will proclaim him as their supreme saint, a banker for the largest benefactors. In the laboratory of Nikola Tesla for the first time is broken atom.

There is created a weapon that causes the earthquake vibrations. There are discovered black cosmic rays. Five races will pray to him in the Temple of the future, because they had taught a great secret that Empedocles elements can be watered with the life forces from the ethers.

Tesla: Yes, these are some of my most important discoveries. I’m a defeated man. I have not accomplished the greatest thing I could.

Journalist: What is it, Mr. Tesla?

Tesla: I wanted to illuminate the whole earth. There is enough electricity to become a second sun. Light would appear around the equator, as a ring around Saturn.

Mankind is not ready for the great and good. In Colorado Springs I soaked the earth by electricity. Also we can water the other energies, such as positive mental energy. They are in the music of Bach or Mozart, or in the verses of great poets. In the Earth’s interior, there are energy of Joy, Peace and Love. Their expressions are a flower that grows from the Earth, the food we get out of her and everything that makes man’s homeland. I’ve spent years looking for the way that this energy could influence people. The beauty and the scent of roses can be used as a medicine and the sun rays as a food.

Life has an infinite number of forms, and the duty of scientists is to find them in every form of matter. Three things are essential in this. All that I do is a search for them. I know I will not find them, but I will not give up on them.

Journalist: What are these things?

Tesla: One issue is food. What a stellar or terrestrial energy to feed the hungry on Earth? With what wine watered all thirsty, so that they can cheer in their heart and understand that they are Gods?

Another thing is to destroy the power of evil and suffering in which man’s life passes! They sometimes occur as an epidemic in the depths of space. In this century, the disease had spread from Earth in the Universe.

The third thing is: Is there an excess Light in the Universe? I discovered a star that by all the astronomical and mathematical laws could disappear, and that nothing seems to be modified. This star is in this galaxy. Its light can occur in such density that fits into a sphere smaller than an apple, a heavier than our Solar System. Religions and philosophies teach that man can become the Christ, Buddha and Zoroaster. What I’m trying to prove is wilder, and almost unattainable. This is what to do in the Universe so every being is born as Christ, Buddha or Zoroaster.

I know that gravity is prone to everything you need to fly and my intention is not to make flying devices (aircraft or missiles), but teach individual to regain consciousness on his own wings … Further; I am trying to awake the energy contained in the air. There are the main sources of energy. What is considered as empty space is just a manifestation of matter that is not awakened.

No empty space on this planet, nor in the Universe.. In black holes, what astronomers talk about, are the most powerful sources of energy and life.

Journalist: On the window of your room in hotel “Valdorf-Astoria”, on the thirty-third floor, every morning, the birds arrive.

Tesla: A man must be sentimental towards the birds. This is because of their wings. Human had them once, the real and visible!

Journalist: You have not stopped flying since those distant days in Smiljan!

Tesla: I wanted to fly from the roof and I fell: Children’s calculations could be wrong. Remember, the youth wings have everything in life!

Journalist: Have you ever married? It is not known that you have affection for love or for a woman. Photos from the youth show you were handsome man.

Tesla: Yes. I did not. There are two views: a lot affection or not at all. The center serves to rejuvenate human race. Women for certain people nurtures and strengthen its vitality and spirit. Being single does the same to other people. I chose that second path.

Journalist: Your admirers are complaining that you attacking relativity. The strange is your assertion that the matter has no energy. Everything is imbued with energy, where it is?

Tesla: First was energy, then matter.

Journalist: Mr. Tesla, it’s like when you said that you were born by your father, and not on you.

Tesla: Exactly! What about the birth of the Universe? Matter is created from the original and eternal energy that we know as Light .It shone, and there have been appear star, the planets, man, and everything on the Earth and in the Universe. Matter is an expression of infinite forms of Light, because energy is older than it. There are four laws of Creation. The first is that the source of all the baffling, dark plot that the mind cannot conceive, or mathematics measure. In that plot fit the whole Universe.

The second law is spreading a darkness, which is the true nature of Light, from the inexplicable and it’s transformed into the Light. The third law is the necessity of the Light to become a matter of Light. The fourth law is: no beginning and no end; three previous laws always take place and the Creation is eternal.

Journalist: In the hostility to the theory of relativity you go so far, that you hold lectures against its Creator at your birthday parties..

Tesla: Remember, it is not curved space, but the human mind which cannot comprehend infinity and eternity! If relativity has been clearly understood by its Creator, he would gain immortality, even yet physically, if he is pleased.

I am part of a light, and it is the music. The Light fills my six senses: I see it, hear, feel, smell, touch and think. Thinking of it means my sixth sense. Particles of Light are written note. O bolt of lightning can be an entire sonata. A thousand balls of lightning is a concert.. For this concert

I have created a Ball Lightning, which can be heard on the icy peaks of the Himalayas. About Pythagoras and mathematics a scientist may not and must not infringe of these two. Numbers and equations are signs that mark the music of the spheres. If Einstein had heard these sounds, he would not create theories of relativity. These sounds are the messages to the mind that life has meaning, that the Universe exists in perfect harmony, and its beauty is the cause and effect of Creation. This music is the eternal cycle of stellar heavens.

The smallest star has completed composition and also, part of the celestial symphony. The man’s heartbeats are part of the symphony on the Earth. Newton learned that the secret is in geometric arrangement and motion of celestial bodies. He recognized that the supreme law of harmony exists in the Universe. The curved space is chaos, chaos is not music. Einstein is the messenger of the time of sound and fury.

Journalist: Mr. Tesla, do you hear that music?

Tesla: I hear it all the time. My spiritual ear is as big as the sky we see above us. My natural ear I increased by the radar. According to the Theory of Relativity, two parallel lines will meet in infinity. By that Einstein’s curved will straighten. Once created, the sound lasts forever. For a man it can vanish, but continues to exist in the silence that is man’s greatest power.

No, I have nothing against Mr. Einstein. He is a kind person and has done many good things, some of which will become part of the music. I will write to him and try to explain that the ether exists, and that its particles are what keep the Universe in harmony, and the life in eternity.

Journalist: Tell me, please, under what conditions Angel adopt on the Earth?

Tesla: I have ten of them. Keep good records vigilant.

Journalist: I will document all your words, Dear Mr. Tesla.

Tesla: The first requirement is a high awareness of its mission and work to be done. It must, if only dimly, exist in the early days. Let us not be falsely modest; Oak knows that it is oak tree, a bush beside him being a bush. When I was twelve, I have been sure I will get to Niagara Falls. For most of my discoveries I knew in my childhood that I will achieve them, although not entirely apparent … The second condition to adapt is determination. All that I might, I finished.

Journalist: What is the third condition of adjustment, Mr. Tesla?

Tesla: Guidance for all the vital and spiritual energies in labor. Therefore purification of the many effects and needs that man has. I therefore have not lost anything, but just gained.

So I enjoyed every day and night. Write down: Nikola Tesla was a happy man… The fourth requirement is to adjust the physical assembly with a work.

Journalist: What do you mean, Mr. Tesla?

Tesla: First, the maintenance of the assembly. Man’s body is a perfect machine. I know my circuit and what’s good for him. Food what nearly all people eat, to me it is harmful and dangerous. Sometimes I visualize that chefs in the world are all in conspiracy against me … Touch my hand.

Journalist: It was cold.

Tesla: Yes. Bloodstream can be controlled, and many processes in and around us. Why are you frightened young man?

Journalist: It’s a story that Mark Twain wrote a mysterious stranger, that wonderful book of Satan, inspired by you.

Tesla: The word “Lucifer” is more charming. Mr. Twain likes to joke. As a child I was healed once by reading his books. When we met here and told him about, he was so touched that he cried. We became friends and he often came to my lab. Once he requested to show him a machine that by vibration provokes a feeling of bliss. It was one of those inventions for entertainment, what I sometimes like to do.

I warned Mr. Twain as not to remain under these vibrations. He did not listen and stayed longer. It ended by being, like a rocket, holding pants, darted into a certain room. It was a diabolically funny, but I kept the seriousness.

But, to adjust the physical circuit, in addition to food, dream is very important . From a long and exhausting work, which required superhuman effort, after one hour of sleep I’d be fully recovered. I gained the ability to manage sleep, to fell asleep and wake up in the time which I have designated. If I do something what I do not understand, I force myself to think about it in my dream, and thus find a solution.

Tesla: The fifth condition of adjustment is memory. Perhaps in the most people, the brain is keeper of knowledge about the world and the knowledge gained through the life. My brain is engaged in more important things than remembering, it is picking what is required at a given moment. This is all around us. It should only be consumed. Everything that we once saw, hear, read and learn, accompanies us in the form of light particles. To me, these particles are obedient and faithful.

Goethe’s Faust, my favorite book, I learned by heart in German as a student, and now it can all recite. I held my inventions for years ‘in my head “, and only then I realized them.

Journalist: You often mentioned the power of visualization.

Tesla: I might have to thank to visualization for all that I invented. The events of my life and my inventions are real in front of my eyes, visible as each occurrence or the item. In my youth I was frightened of not knowing what it is, but later, I learned to use this power as an exceptional talent and gift. I nurtured it, and jealously guarded. I also made corrections by visualization on most of my inventions, and finish them that way, by visualization I mentally solve complex mathematical equations. For that gift I have, I will receive rank High Lama in Tibet.

My eyesight and hearing are perfect and, dare to say, stronger than other people. I hear the thunder of a hundred fifty miles away, and I see colors in the sky that others cannot see. This enlargement of vision and hearing, I had as a child. Later I consciously developed.

Journalist: In youth you have several times been seriously ill. Is it a disease and a requirement to adapt?

Tesla: Yes. It is often the result of a lack of exhaustion or vital force, but often the purification of mind and body from the toxins that have accumulated. It is necessary that a man suffers from time to time. The source of most disease is in the spirit. Therefore the spirit and can cure most diseases. As a student I got sick of cholera which raged in the region of Lika. I was cured because my father finally allowed me to study technology, which was my life. Illusion for me was not a disease, but the mind’s ability to penetrate beyond the three dimensions of the earth.

I had them all my life, and I have received them as all other phenomena around us. Once, in childhood, I was walking along the river with Uncle and said: “From the water will appear the trout, I’ll throw a stone and it is cut.” That’s what happened. Frightened and amazed, his uncle cried: “Bade retro Satan’s!” He was an educated and he spoke in Latin …

I was in Paris when I saw my mother’s death. In the sky, full of light and music floated are wonderful creatures. One of them had a mother’s character, who was looking at me with infinite love. As the vision disappeared, I knew that my mother died.

Journalist: What is the seventh adjustment, Mr. Tesla?

Tesla: The knowledge of how the mental and vital energy transform into what we want, and achieve control over all feelings. Hindus call it Kundalini Yoga. This knowledge can be learned, for what they need many years or is acquired by birth. The most of them I acquired by birth. They are in the closest connection with a sexual energy that is after the most widespread in the Universe. The woman is the biggest thief of that energy, and thus the spiritual power.

I’ve always knew that and was alerted. Of myself I created what I wanted: a thoughtful and spiritual machine.

Journalist: A ninth adjustment, Mr. Tesla?

Tesla: Do everything that any day, any moment, if possible, not to forget who we are and why we are on Earth. Extraordinary people who are struggling with illness, privation, or the society which hurts them with its stupidity, misunderstanding, persecution and other problems which the country is full of a swamps with insects, leaves behind unclaimed until the end of the work. There are many fallen angels on Earth.

Journalist: What is the tenth adaptation?

Tesla: It is most important. Write that Mr. Tesla played. He played the whole of his life and enjoyed it.

Journalist: Mr. Tesla! Whether it relates to your findings and your work? Is this a game?

Tesla: Yes, dear boy. I have so loved to play with electricity! I always cringe when I hear about the one also the Greek who stole fire. A terrible story about studding, and eagles peck at his liver. Did Zeus did not have enough lightning and thunder, and was damaged for one fervor? There is some misunderstanding…

Lightning are the most beautiful toys that can be found. Do not forget that in your text stand out: Nikola Tesla was the first man who discovered lightning.

Journalist: Mr. Tesla, you’re just talking about angels and their adaptation to the Earth.

Tesla: Am I? This is the same. You could write this: he dared to take upon himself the prerogatives of Indri, Zeus and Peron. Imagine one of these gods in a black evening suit, with the bowler hat and wearing white cotton gloves prepares lightning, fires and earthquakes to the New York City elite!

Journalist: Readers love the humor of our paper. But you confuse me stating that your findings, which have immense benefits for the people, representing the game. Many will frown on it.

Tesla: Dear Mr. Smith, the trouble is that people are too serious. If they were not, they would be happier and much longer would have lived. Chinese proverb says that the seriousness reduces life. Visiting the inn Tai Pe guessed that he visits the Imperial Palace. But that the newspaper readers would not have frowned, let’s get back to things which they consider important.

Journalist: They would love to hear what your philosophy is.

Tesla: Life is a rhythm that must be comprehended. I feel the rhythm and direct on it and pamper in it. It was very grateful and gave me the knowledge I have. Everything that lives is related to a deep and wonderful relationship: man and the stars, amoebas’ and the sun, the heart and the circulation of an infinite number of worlds. These ties are unbreakable, but they can be tame and to propitiate and begin to create new and different relationships in the world, and that does not violate the old.

Knowledge comes from space; our vision is its most perfect set. We have two eyes: the earthly and spiritual. It is recommended that it become one eye. Universe is alive in all its manifestations, like a thinking animal.

Stone is a thinking and sentient being, such as plant, beast and a man. A star that shines asked to look at, and if we are not a sizeable self-absorbed we would understand its language and message. His breathing, his eyes and ears of the man must comply with breathing, eyes and ears of the Universe.

Journalist: As you say this, it seems to me like I hear Buddhist texts, words or Taoist Parazulzusa.

Tesla: That’s right! This means that there is general knowledge and truth that man has always possessed. In my feeling and experience, the Universe has only one substance and one supreme energy with an infinite number of manifestations of life. The best thing is that the discovery of a secret nature, reveals the other.

One cannot hide, there are around us, but we are blind and deaf to them. If we emotionally tie ourselves to them, they come to us themselves. There are a lot of apples, but one Newton. He asked for just one apple that fell in front of him.

Journalist: A question that might be set at the beginning of this conversation. What was Electricity for you, Dear Mr. Tesla?

Tesla: Everything is Electricity. First was the light, endless source from which points out material and distribute it in all forms that represent the Universe and the Earth with all its aspects of life. Black is the true face of Light, only we do not see this. It is remarkable grace to man and other creatures. One of its particles possesses light, thermal, nuclear, radiation, chemical, mechanical and an unidentified energy.

It has the power to run the Earth with its orbit. It is true Archimedean lever.

Journalist: Mr. Tesla, you’re too biased towards electricity.

Tesla: Electricity I am. Or, if you wish, I am the electricity in the human form. You are Electricity; too Mr. Smith, but you do not realize it.

Journalist: Is it thus your ability to allow fails of electricity of one million volts trough your body?

Tesla: Imagine a gardener who is attacked by herbs. This would indeed be crazy. Man’s body and brain are made from a large amount energy; in me there is the majority of electricity. The energy that is different in everyone is what makes the human “I” or “soul”. For other creatures to their essence, “soul” of the plant is the “soul” of minerals and animals.

Brain function and death is manifested in light. My eyes in youth were black, now blue, and as time goes on and strain the brain gets stronger, they are closer to white. White is the color of heaven. Through my window one morning, landed a white dove, which I fed. She wanted to bring me a word that she was dying. From her eyes the light jets were coming out. Never in the eyes of any creature had I not seen so much light, as in that pigeon.

Journalist: Personnel in your lab speak about flashes of light, flames and lightning that occur if you are angry or into kind of risk.

Tesla: It is the psychic discharge or a warning to be alert. The light was always on my side. Do you know how I discovered the rotating magnetic field and induction motor, which made me became famous when I was twenty-six? One summer evening in Budapest, I watched with my friend Sigetijem sunset.

Thousands of fire was turning around in thousands of flaming colors. I remembered Faust and recited his verses and then, as in a fog, I saw spinning magnetic field, and induction motor. I saw them in the sun!

Journalist: Hotel service telling that at the time of lightning you isolate into the room and talk to yourselves.

Tesla: I talk with lightning and thunder.

Journalist: With them? What language, Mr.Tesla?

Tesla: Mostly my native language. It has the words and sounds, especially in poetry, what is suitable for it.

Journalist: Readers of our magazine would be very grateful if you would interpret that.

Tesla: The sound does not exist only in the thunder and lightning, but, in transformation into the brightness and color. A color can be heard. Language is of the words, which means that it is from the sounds and colors. Every thunder and lightning are different and have their names. I call some of them by the names of those who were close in my life, or by those whom I admire.

In the sky brightness and thunder live my mother, sister, brother Daniel, a poet Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj and other persons of Serbian history. Names such AsIsaiah, Ezekiel, Leonardo, Beethoven, Goya, Faraday, Pushkin and all burning fires mark shoals and tangles of lightning and thunder, which does not stop all night bringing to the Earth precious rain and burning trees or villages.

There is lightning and thunder, and they are the brightest and most powerful, that will not vanish. They are coming back and I recognize them among the thousands.

Journalist: For you, science or poetry is the same?

Tesla: These are the two eyes of one person. William Blake was taught that the Universe was born from the imagination, that it maintains and it will exist as long as there is a last man on the Earth. With it was a wheel to which astronomers can collect the stars of all galaxies. It is the creative energy identical to the light energy.

Journalist: Imagination is more real to you than life itself?

Tesla: It gives birth to the life. I have fed by my taught; I’ve learned to control emotions, dreams and visions. I have always cherished, as I nurtured my enthusiasm. All my long life I spent in ecstasy. That was the source of my happiness. It helped me during all these years to bear with work, which was enough for the five lives. The best is to work at night, because the stellar light, and close bond.

Journalist: You said that I am, like every being, the Light. This flatter me, but I confess, I do not quite understand.

Tesla: Why would you need to understand, Mr. Smith? Suffice it to believe it. Everything is light. In one its ray is the fate of nations, each nation has its own ray in what great light source we see as the sun. And remember: no one who was there did not die. They transformed into the light, and as such exist still. The secret lies in the fact that the light particles restore their original state.

Journalist: This is the resurrection!

Tesla: I prefer to call it: return to a previous energy. Christ and several others knew the secret. I am searching how to preserve human energy. It is forms of Light, sometimes straight like heavenly light. I have not looked for it for my own sake, but for the good of all. I believe that my discoveries make people’s lives easier and more bearable, and channel them to spirituality and morality.

Journalist: Do you think that time can be abolished?

Tesla: Not quite, because the first feature of the energy is that it transforms. It is in perpetual transformation, as clouds of Taoists. But it is possible to leverage the fact that a man preserves consciousness after the earthly life. In every corner of the universe exist energy of life; one of them is immortality, whose origin is outside of man, waiting for him.

The universe is spiritual; we are only half that way. The Universe is more moral than us, because we do not know his nature and how to harmonize our lives with it. I am not scientist, science is perhaps the most convenient way to find the answer to the question that always haunt me, and which my days and nights turned into fire.

Journalist: What’s the matter?

Tesla: How are your eyes brightened!… What I wanted to know is: what happens to a falling star as the sun goes out? Stars fall like dust or seed in this or in other worlds, and the sun be scattered in our minds, in the lives of many beings, what will be reborn as a new light, or cosmic wind scattered in infinity.

I understand that this is necessary included in the structure of the Universe. The thing is, though, is that one of these stars and one of these suns, even the smallest, preserves.

Journalist: But, Mr. Tesla, you realize that this is necessary and is included in the constitution of the world!

Tesla: When a man becomes concuss; that his highest goal must be to run for a shooting star, and tries to capture it; shall understand that his life was given to him because of this and will be saved. Stars will eventually be capable to catch!

Journalist: And what will happen then?

Tesla: The creator will laugh and say: ”It fall only that you chase her and grab her.”

Journalist: Isn’t all of this contrary to the cosmic pain, which so often you mention in your writings? And what is it cosmic pain?

Tesla: No, because we are on Earth … It is an illness whose existence the vast majority of people are not aware of. Hence, many other illnesses, suffering, evil, misery, wars and everything else what makes human life an absurd and horrible condition. This disease cannot be completely cured, but awareness shall make it less complicated and hazardous. Whenever one of my close and dear people were hurt, I felt physical pain. This is because our bodies are made as of similar material, and our soul related with unbreakable strands. Incomprehensible sadness that overwhelmed us at times means that somewhere, on the other side on this planet, a child or generous man died.

The entire Universe is in certain periods sick of itself, and of us. Disappearance of a star and the appearance of comets affect us more than we can imagine. Relationships among the creatures on the Earth are even stronger, because of our feelings and thoughts the flower will scent even more beautiful or will fall in silence.

These truths we must learn in order to be healed. Remedy is in our hearts and evenly, in the heart of the animals that we call the Universe.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

Main cause of perihelion shift of Mercury is said to be gravity of the other planets. But position of other planets move (also position of perihelion of Mercury moves). If so, values 5.75 secarc/year is unthinkable. Main cause
will be in Mercury itself. And also it will be the same on values of perihelion shift of the other planets.

Perihelion shift of Mercury is said to be 5.75 secarc. Sometimes it is shown as 575 arcsec/100 years. Only on Mercury ? Because the value is unreliable ? For evasion ?

• Gravity lense

Gravity lenses are said to be a positive evidence of GR. However if gravity of gravitational source can be estimated, which is real GR or Newton’s theory will be clarified.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

“It can be safely said that gravity of other planets has no effect on the perihelion shift of Mercury”. It’s in a website.

Imagine that with long radius of orbit of Mercury, the space of the solar system is divided into left and right. The probability that other planets exist on the two is equal. There will be no shift of perihelion in one direction at constant speed (common view is wrong).

But main cause of perihelion shift of Jupiter and Saturn will be mutual effect of gravity. Each perihelion is shifted every moment.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

There is a model of Mercury. A long lod penetrates a true sphere and at the both ends of the lod, weights are set. This model is rotating horizontally and is moving on the orbit of Mercury (two planes fall on). Main forces acting on the weights are gravity of the sun and inertial force (centrifugal force). And each force acting on the outside weight and inside weight is different.

Inertial force pulls the orbit to the outside. But actual orbit of Mercury is pulled to the inside. Gravity of the sun acting on the two weights is inversely proportional to the square of the distance (not come out even. not plus minus zero). In Mercury, the action of gravity will be superior.

• How are Hindu mythology and the theory of relativity related?

Vishnu Maha Puran 4.1.65 & Shrimad Bhagwat Maha Puran 9.3.32 directly talk about theory of relativity.

King Kakudmi finding none amongst the earthlings as a capable life partner for his daughter, decided to consult Lord Bramha the creator of the universe himself to find a capable groom for Revati. Along with daughter Revati, the king Kakudmi went to SatyaLok by using his YogaSiddhi. The Gandharvas were singing a song, so King waited there to enjoy the song for servaral minutes and went to Lord Brahma and started to read list of princes on earth so that Lord Brahma will choose one of the groom for Revati. But Lord Brahma laughed and said, “O King, you have come to my SatyaLoka. Here on this plane of the universe, time is different from what it is on earth. You have spent time here around 1 Muhurt ( 48 minutes ). In the time that you were waiting here, 27 chaturyugs have passed by on earth. Your kingdom is long gone by and all of the grooms existing in your era on earth are now dead. All of your fore generations are already dead and an altogether different kind of human life is now growing itself on earth. ”

By listening these words from Lord Brahma, King Kakudmi got scared. Lord Brahma said, “Currently DwaparYuga of 28th Cycle of Chaturyuga ( MahaYuga ) is gong to end and KaliYuga is gonna start coming soon. So you go back to earth. There is Dwarka City on the place of your Kushasthali city. Lord Narayan incarnated there as Shri Krishna, and Lord Anant Shesha has incarnated as Balaram. Arrange marriage of your daughter with Balaram.”

When King Kakudmi returned back to earth with his daughter, he found everything is changed. People have less size, less power etc etc. So daughter of King Kakudmi i.e. Revati was taller than Balaram and other women of that era but Balaram made her of equal height of normal women of that era. After marriage of Balaram and Revati, King Kakudmi went to Badrikashram for penance and achieved Moksha.

So, I told you story in short as I remember. Now let’s analyze the story.

1 day on earth = 24 hours = 30 Muhurtas Hence 1 Muhurta = 48 Minutes.

Let’s find out how many years passes on earth within the 1 day of SatyaLok.
Scriptures like BhagwadGita says that when 1000 cycles of 4 Yugas on earth makes the 1 day of Brahma. This period of 1000 cycles of 4 Yugas is called as 1 Kalp.

1 day on SatyaLok
= 1 Kalp
= 1000 ( ChaturYuga )
= 1000 (SatyaYug + TretaYug + DwaparYug + X KaliYug )

By substituting the values of Yugas
SatyaYug = 4(432000) Years on Earth
TretaYug = 3(432000) Years on Earth
DwaparYug=2(432000) Years on Earth
KaliYug=1(432000) Years on Earth

We Get 1 day of SatyaLok = 1000 [4( 432000 ) + 3 ( 432000 )+ 2 ( 432000 ) + 1 ( 432000 )
= 4320000000 Years on Earth. —– (eq.1)

Similarly lets find out how many years contained within 27 Chaturyugas

27 Chaturyga
= 27 ( Chaturyuga )
= 27 ( 4320000 )
= 116640000 Years on Earth. ——–(eq.2)

So according to details from Purana, 27 years on earth passed when King Kakudmi waited for around 1 Muhurt ( 48 minutes ) in SatyaLok.

So Consider amount of time Kakudmi spent in SatyaLok is Y.
From eq.1 and eq.2 we have

30 Muhurtas in SatyaLoka = 4320000000 Years on Earth

Y Muhurta in SatyaLoka = 116640000 Years on Earth.

Hence We get

30/Y = 4320000000/116640000

Y = 30 ( 116640000/4320000000 )

Y = 0.81 Muhurta ~~> 1 Muhurta

We get answer 0.81 Muhurtas in SatyaLok covers 27 Chaturyugas on earth. Lord Brahma said 28th DwaparYuga is going to end and KaliYug is going to start. Hence SatyaYug and TretaYug were already passed and 4th Charan of DwaparYug was going on. By adding this period to 0.81 we reaches to 1 Muhurt.

Hence 27 Chaturyugas were passed and KaliYug of 28th cycle was going to start on earth and King Kakudmi experienced this time as 1 Muhurt ( 48 minutes ) in SatyaLok.

Similarly there are another Examples in Vedic Literature.

Eg. 6 Months of Uttarayan on Earth are equivalent to Day on SwargaLok and 6 Months of Dakshinayan on Earth are equivalent to Night of SwargaLok. Arjun learnt Advanced DhanurVed within few days in SwargaLok but when he return back to earth, he heard from his brothers that he returned back to earth after several years.

There is no direct relationship but the theory of relativity is referred to in several ways in hindu mythology and because it is done so in the form of fables, the actual point that the stories try to convey gets lost in the translation.

• Albert Einstein says:

The best way to know origin of civilization is to first know the exact time, date of today.

Are we sure this is the year 2020?

Here, see this video about Yugas or Time.
https://youtu.be/1WNQDqXZOWg

See the video how Sadhguru arrives at the exact current year as per the Hindu Calendar.

Now need I say where to look for the origin of civilization.

Clue: This is not the first time we have reached this year, date and time.

The entire creation is CYCLICAL.
Everything that has happened, happening and about to happen is CYCLICAL.

It has happened many times before and will happen many times in future.

In short, this is not first time we are born, dead, got married, had kids, and etc…or the planets were created or destroyed.

The video proves and shows today’s exact year.

Now If you are having basic common sense you will easily know where to look for exact origin of civilization.

https://youtu.be/MZ6hVl84sjg

Hinduism has not just one creation story, but many – one for each universe.

Hinduism, like most religions, tells a creation story to explain the origin of our universe. However, to Hindus, ours is but one of an infinite number of universes, linked through an endless cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth, each with its own unique creation myth.

This is not the only earth.
This is not the only universe.
This is not the only planet.
This is not the only “TIME”.

There is a dimension beyond realm or law of time.

Once you TRANSCEND the realm of time, you can know the origin of creation.

In short the universe was never created.
It always existed.
It just starts over and over Again and there are parallel universes.

Theory of relativity.
So the multiple origins of creation, universe and civilization.
All of them happened.
Exact facts, may be exaggerated but all of them like dinosaurs, Ice age, Satya-Dwapara-Treta-Kali Yuga, Cave Men, Neanderthal men, Krishna, Rama, Shiva, Jesus, Allah happened but may be not exactly the way we read.

But they all happened as we have parallel universe.

Here know the theory of relativity, to understand about parallel universe.

Time is relative to your motion. If you travel faster, time moves slowly. If you travel at speed of light, clock stops ticking and so, even if you travel for one year, you will be of the same age you were when you started travelling at speed of light.

Suppose you are 28 years old and your brother is 26 years old. Now you start travelling from earth to space at speed of light for twenty human years. When you return back to earth, you find that you are still young and 28 years old but your brother has grown old and is 46 years old. You will be surprised to know that your younger brother has became elder and you have become the younger one.

This concept of relativity has been proved by American scientist and astronauts travelling in space on their spacecrafts. Even when the astronauts travel in spaceships for years, they feel like travelling for only few days.

So all the origin of civilization are true but exact facts may be exaggerated.

But creation is CYCLICAL.
Just that origin of civilization is a multi universe event.
There is ‘no one’ origin of civilization.

Remember time can be Bent.
You can go beyond laws (realm) of time.

This means anything can happen.
Multiple universe, multiple origins of civilization, multiple laws of science.

What nirmukta is promoting is one form of science, atheism, pragmatic approach based.

But if one person in Nirmukta is able to TRANSCEND time or do time travel then….get it…

That is Nirmukta in a other universe might be a holy God fearing forum…get it theory of relativity…

This is not mythology, this theory of relativity…there is no absolute truth, reality, science etc.

Everything is based on certain laws.
The moment you breach, TRANSCEND Time, it’s a completely different ball game.

Entire equation of your science, pragmatic approach, atheism itself is shattered.
Again I repeat this is based on theory of relativity a.k.a multi universe…

Bit confusing I know but read again..you will know..

• Hindu Mythology had place to fit in Relativity

Einstein, recognised as one of the best minds of this century has crafted the then unusual and now fascinating theory of “Relativity”.

It was unusual back then for different reasons, among which one was, It just disrupts our pre-programmed belief of Mind regarding the Time, Though not all have understood it, not even to the basics, but also had this false programming embedded to accept the new reality.

Secondly, it was overwhelmingly complicated and different from what we have seen or understood till then and told / explained by the quoted father of physics , Isaac Newton.

What actually does the theory states ?
Remember the movie Interstellar ? I definitely believe you will, though we understood it or not, it was the impact of the movie which imprints on our minds, the complete concept of the movie is dealt with time travel and relativity.

To give you a simple work around on understanding the concept of relativity. “Time doesn’t move at a same speed for everyone/every place”. At places with higher gravity the time moves slowly thus as per the movie though the astronaut doesn’t ages up the daughter grows older by the time he returns back.There is a deep technical explanation on how this is possible which drives us away from the concept of this article, but surely do read it.

When was the co-relation triggered ?

Few years ago I was casually reading on the Hindu’s version of Universe, Its formation and End. Where I found a mind blowing math, in which the way large chunks of time (Like years) were classified and unified with names just baffled my mind.To give a sample lets dig in.

Human Existence / Span is broadly divided into four Yugas namely
Satya Yuga lasting for 1,728,000 Human years
Treta Yuga lasting for 1,296,000 Human years
Dvapara Yuga lasting for 864,000 Human years
Kali Yuga lasting for 432,000 Human years
Equalling to 4.32 million human years. A combined unit of all these years would be classified as a Mahayuga and such 1,000 Mahayugas make a single day for Brahma, the god of creation according to Hindu belief system, Brahma Lives for 100 years with equal number of days and nights and having 365 days in a year.

Nextly 100 brahma Years = One Respiratory Exhale time of Lord Vishnu.
I was completely blown away by two things when I finished my reading,
The magnitude of classification of these years into such huge numbers.

Vedas stated the time wasn’t constant for everyone and differs according to the situations and places.

That was the same thing Einstein tried to explain from his Theory.I was wondering was this some kid of coincidence or fault in my perception of seeing / understanding the things.Was I comparing apples with oranges ? I knew that the perception of Bhrama Loka and Vishnu Loka were metaphors of the concept of multi dimensions.I thought due to the difference in levels of gravity among those dimensions there is this huge variation of Time for the ones living in them.But I still wanted to confirm, if there were any such incident quoted in the scriptures regarding this concept of difference in times and its effects.I went onto a deep study then, to find out some instances.

Its occurences in Bhagavatam

Bhagavatam is a holy scripture written by veda vyas which depicts the avatars of Lord Vishnu (A hindu god, one among the trimurthys).

1) Brahma vs Krishna

Brahma once wanted to test the powers this little kid named Krishna who is considered as incarnation of Lord Vishnu.To do so he visits earth and sees Krishna playing with some of his friends and cattle while they bought the cattle out for grazing.Krishna went away for a couple of minutes and Brahma grabbing the opportunity, took all the kids and cattle through with him and hid them in brahma loka and came back to see what krishna does.Though its a just a flash of second for Brahma to do so, the equivalent number of Human years passed on earth and when brahma returns astonishes to see all the Kids and cattle living happily like nothing has actually happened.He with his yoga drishti observes the its krishna who has taken the form of everyone in the mean time of a couple of years and living with the families of those kids and cattle.Then later krishna explains brahma his concept of Multiverses and Multi brahmas and his existence as supreme power over all brhamas.

2) Kakudmi’s Daughter’s Marriage
According to bagavatam Kakudmi was a king who had a daughter named Revati. She was considered as the most perfectly mannered and good looking princess of her time and Kakudmi was struggling to find a perfect Groom for his daughter. He prepares a list of Kings who he felt were one the best and goes to brahma loka to seek the advice of Brahma along with his daughter.He is informed that Brahma is attending a music performance from Gandharvas and Kakudmi decided to wait for a while, after sometime when the performance is over, Kakudmi and revati goes in to see Brahma and offer their greetings and explain him about the reason of his arrival.Brahma bursts out with laughter explaining that none of the kings he mentioned are alive on earth because by the time he waited for performance 1000s of human years have passed on the earth and the entire generations got changed.He later recommends the name of Balarama who happens to be the Older brother of Krishna as the best match for Revati. Technically proving Kakudmi and Revati were the first time travellers according the Bhagavatam.

Upon some deep reading and research over the stories of Mythology I found these two as instances, but I am still on my study to find any instance which actually states that Gravity has a part of in this scenario.

I am not claiming that these stories have / have not actually happened, I just wanted to state that we need to change our perspective over the scriptures and start observing them from a scientific point of view to understand the encrypted messages in them.

• A Very Brief History of Indian Science

India’s civilization valued science and knowledge above all and some of the most extraordinary scientific advances took place there.
The annual Indian Science Congress, which just concluded, had its usual share of controversies about the history of Indian science and I have been asked to weigh in. It so turns out that I did precisely that in a brief account titled “Science” for Stanley Wolpert’s Encyclopedia of India(2005) and since that is freely available online, I shall be more selective of themes in this revision of the previous essay[1][2]. This account does not include the modern period for which many excellent histories exist.

The Vedic texts assert that the universe is governed by Rita (laws) and that consciousness transcends materiality. The universe is taken to be infinite in size and infinitely old.

Indian archaeology and literature provide considerable layered evidence related to the development of science. The chronological time frame for this history is provided by the archaeological record that has been traced, in an unbroken tradition, to about 8000 BCE. Prior to this date, there are records of rock paintings that are considerably older[3]. The earliest textual source is the Ṛigveda, which is a compilation of very ancient material. The astronomical references in the Vedic books recall events of the third or the fourth millennium BCE and earlier. The discovery that Sarasvati, the preeminent river of the Ṛigvedic times, went dry around 1900 BCE, if not earlier, suggests that portions of the Ṛigveda may be dated prior to this epoch.

The third-millennium urbanization is characterized by a very precise system of weights and monumental architecture using cardinal directions. Indian writing (the so-called Indus script) goes back to the beginning of the third millennium BCE, but it has not yet been deciphered. However, statistical analysis shows that the later historical script called Brahmi evolved from this writing.[4]

Laws and cosmology
The Vedic texts assert that the universe is governed by Rita (laws) and that consciousness transcends materiality. The universe is taken to be infinite in size and infinitely old. By the time of the Puraṇas, other worlds were postulated beyond our solar system.

It is asserted that language (as a formal system) cannot describe reality completely and linguistic descriptions suffer from paradox. Because of this limitation, reality can only be experienced and never described fully. Knowledge was classified in two ways: the lower or dual अपरा; and the higher or unified परा. The seemingly irreconcilable worlds of the material and the conscious were taken as aspects of the same transcendental reality.

It was known that this number 108 is the approximate distance from Earth to the sun and the moon, in sun and moon diameters, respectively.

The texts present a tripartite and recursive view of the world[5]. The three regions of the earth, space, and sky are mirrored in the human being in the physical body, the breath (praṇa), and the mind. The processes in the sky, on earth, and within the mind are assumed to be connected. This connection is a consequence of a binding (Bandhu) between various inner and outer phenomena and it is because of this binding that it is possible to know the world.[6]

There is evidence of the knowledge of biological cycles and awareness that there exist two fundamental rhythms in the body: the 24 hours related to the sun, and the 24 hours and 50 minutes related to the period of the moon (the moon rises about 50 minutes later every day)[7]. This knowledge is not surprising since monthly rhythms, averaging 29.5 days, are reflected in the reproductive cycles of many marine plants and those of animals.

The Ṛigveda 10.90 speaks of these connections by saying that the moon was born of the mind and the sun was born of the eyes of the cosmic self:

candramā mana’so jātaḥ | cakṣoḥ sūryo’ ajāyata | RV 10.90.13

The connection between the outer and the inner cosmos is seen most strikingly in the use of the number 108 in Indian religious and artistic expression[8]. It was known that this number is the approximate distance from Earth to the sun and the moon, in sun and moon diameters, respectively. This number was probably obtained by taking a pole of a certain height to a distance 108 times its height and discovering that the angular size of the pole was the same as that of the sun or the moon. It is a curious fact that the diameter of the sun is also approximately 108 times the diameter of Earth.

This number of dance poses (karaṇas) given in the Naṭya Sastra is 108, as is the number of beads in a Japa mala. The distance between the body and the inner sun is also taken to be 108, and thus there are 108 names of the gods and goddesses. The number of marmas (weak points) in Ayurveda is 107 because, in a chain 108 units long, the number of weak points would be one less.

Ancient Indian views of the universe are more subtle than the corresponding Western views.[9]

Physical laws and motion
The history of Indian physics goes back to Kanada (कणाद) (600 BCE) who asserted that all that is knowable is based on motion, thus giving centrality to analysis in the understanding of the universe [10]. Kanada asserted that there are nine classes of substances: ether, space, and time, which are continuous, and four kinds of atoms two of which have mass and two that have little mass. A brilliant argument was given in support of this view.

Let the basic atoms of Prithvi, Apas, Tejas, and Vayu be represented by P, Ap, T, and V, respectively. Every substance is composed of these four kinds of atoms. Consider gold in its solid form; its mass derives principally from the P atoms. When it is heated, it becomes a liquid and therefore there should be another kind of an atom already in gold which makes it possible for it to take the liquid form and this is Ap. When heated further it burns and this is when the T atom gets manifested. When heated further, it loses its mass ever so slightly, and this is due to the loss of the V atoms.

The atoms are eternal only under normal conditions, and during creation and destruction, they arise in a sequence starting with akasa and are absorbed in the reverse sequence at the end of the world cycle. The sequence of evolution of the elements is given as V→T→Ap→P[11]. The V and T atoms have little mass (since they do not exist in a substantive form), whereas P and Ap atoms have mass. This sequence also hides within it the possibility of transformation from V and T atoms that are energetic to the more massive Ap and P atoms.

Kanada also made a distinction between the mind and the self, or consciousness. The conscious subject is separate from material reality but is, nevertheless, able to direct its evolution. He presented laws of motion and also spoke of invariants[10]. He saw the atom to be spherical since it should appear the same from all directions.

Problems are often presented with their algebraic counterparts. The solution to planetary problems also led to the development of algebraic methods.

The atoms combined to form different kinds of molecules that break up under the influence of heat. The molecules come to have different properties based on the influence of various potentials.

Indian chemistry developed many different alkalis, acids, and metallic salts by processes of calcination and distillation, often motivated by the need to formulate medicines. Metallurgists developed efficient techniques of extraction of metals from ore.

Astronomy
We know quite a bit about how astronomical science evolved in India[12]. The Yajurvedic sage Yajnavalkya knew of a ninety-five-year cycle to harmonize the motions of the sun and the moon, and he also knew that the sun’s circuit was asymmetric. The second millennium BCE text Vedanga Jyotiṣa of Lagadha went beyond the earlier calendrical astronomy to develop a theory for the mean motions of the sun and the moon[13]. An epicycle theory was used to explain planetary motions. Given the different periods of the planets, it became necessary to assume yet longer periods to harmonize their cycles. This led to the notion of maha yugas and kalpas with periods of billions of years.

The innovations of the division of the circle into 360 parts and the zodiac into 27 nakshatras and 12 Rashi’s took place first in India[14]. The schoolbook accounts of how these innovations first emerged in Mesopotamia in the 7th century BCE and then arrived in India centuries later are incorrect.

The Satapatha Brahmana which was compiled soon after the Vedas says: “The sun strings these worlds [the earth, the planets, the atmosphere] to himself on a thread. This thread is the same as the wind…” This suggests a central role to the sun in defining the motions of the planets and ideas such as these must have ultimately led to the theory of expanding and shrinking epicycles.

Astronomical texts called Siddhanta’s begin appearing sometime in the first millennium BCE. According to the tradition, there were eighteen early Siddhanta’s, of which only a few have survived. Each Siddhanta is an astronomical system with its own constants. The Surya Siddhanta speaks of the motion of planets governed by “Cords of Air” that bind them, which is a conception like that of the field.

The great astronomers and mathematicians include Aryabhata (BC. 476), who took Earth to spin on its own axis and who spoke of the relativity of motion and provided outer planet orbits with respect to the sun[15]. This work and that of Brahmagupta (BC. 598) and Bhaskara (BC. 1114) was passed on to Europe via the Arabs. The Kerala School with figures such as Madhava (c. 1340–1425) and Nilakantha (c. 1444–1545) came up with new innovations of analysis based on advanced mathematics.

Evolution of Life
The Sankhya system speaks of evolution both at the levels of the individual as well as the cosmos. The Mahabharata and the Puranas have material on the creation and the rise of humankind[16]. It is said that man arose at the end of a chain that began with plants and various kinds of animals. In Vedic evolution, the urge to evolve into higher forms is taken to be inherent in nature. A system of evolution from inanimate to progressively higher life is assumed to be a consequence of the different proportions of the three basic attributes of the guṇas (qualities): sattva (“Truth” or “Transparency”), rajas (activity), and tamas (“Darkness” or “Inertia”). In its undeveloped state, the cosmic matter has these qualities in equilibrium. As the world evolves, one or the other of these becomes preponderant in different objects or beings, giving specific character to each.

Geometry and mathematics
Indian geometry began very early in the Vedic period in altar problems, as in the one where the circular altar is to be made equal in area to a square altar. The historian of mathematics, Abraham Seidenberg, saw the birth of geometry and mathematics in the solution of such problems[17]. Two aspects of the “Pythagoras” theorem are described in the texts by Baudhayana and others[18]. Problems are often presented with their algebraic counterparts. The solution to planetary problems also led to the development of algebraic methods.

Binary numbers were known at the time of Pingala’s Chandahsastra. Pingala, who might have lived as early as fourth century BCE used binary numbers to classify Vedic meters. The knowledge of binary numbers indicates a deep understanding of arithmetic.

The sign for zero within the place value decimal number system that was to revolutionize mathematics and facilitate the development of technology appears to have been devised around 50 BCE to 50 CE [19][20][21]. Indian numerals were introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (13th century) who is now known for a sequence that was described earlier by Virahanka (between 600 and 800), Gopāla (prior to 1135) and Hemacandra (1150 CE)[22]. Narayana Pandit (14th century) showed that these numbers were a special case of the multinomial coefficients.

Bharata’s Natya Sastra has resulted in combinatorics and discrete mathematics, and Aryabhata has material on mathematics including methods to solve numerical problems effectively[23]. Later source materials include the works of Brahmagupta, Lalla (eighth century), Mahavira (ninth century), Jayadeva, Sripati (eleventh century), Bhaskara, and Madhava[24][25]. In particular, Madhava’s derivation and use of infinite series predated similar development in Europe, which is normally seen as the beginning of modern calculus. Some scholars believe these ideas were carried by Jesuits from India to Europe and they eventually set in motion the Scientific Revolution.[26][27]

A noteworthy contribution was by the school of New Logic (Navya Nyaya) of Bengal and Bihar. At its zenith during the time of Raghunatha (1475–1550), this school developed a methodology for a precise semantic analysis of language. Navya Nyaya foreshadowed mathematical logic and there is evidence that it influenced modern machine theory.[16]

Grammar
Paṇini’s grammar Astadhyayi (Eight chapters) of the fifth century BCE provides four thousand rules that describe Sanskrit completely. This grammar is acknowledged to be one of the greatest intellectual achievements of all time. The great variety of language mirrors, in many ways, the complexity of nature and, therefore, success in describing a language is as impressive as a complete theory of physics. Scholars have shown that the grammar of Paṇini represents a universal grammatical and computing system[28]. From this perspective, it anticipates the logical framework of modern computers.[29]

Medicine
Ayurveda, the Indian medicine system, is a holistic approach to health that builds upon the tripartite Vedic approach to the world. Health is maintained through a balance between three basic touches of humor (dosa) of wind (Vata), fire (pitta), and water (kapha). Each of these humor had five varieties. Although literally meaning “Air,” “Bile,” and “Phlegm,” the dosas represented larger principles. Its division of states into three categories rather than two is more efficient than the binary division of other medical systems.[30]

Caraka and Susruta are two famous early physicians. According to Caraka, health and disease are not predetermined, and life may be prolonged by human effort. Susruta defines the purpose of medicine to cure the diseases of the sick, to protect the health, and to prolong life. The Samhitas speak of organisms that circulate in the blood, mucus, and phlegm. In particular, the organisms in the blood that cause disease are said to be invisible. It is suggested that physical contact and sharing the same air can cause such diseases to spread. Inoculation was practiced for protection against smallpox.[31]

In physical theory there is no place for the observer, computer science cannot explain how awareness arises in the brain-machine, and neuroscience has not found any neural correlate of consciousness.

Indian surgery was quite advanced. The caesarian section was known, as was plastic surgery, and bone setting reached a high degree of skill. Susruta classified surgical operations into eight categories: incision, excision, scarification, puncturing, probing, extraction, evacuation, and drainage, and suturing. Susruta lists 101 blunt and 20 sharp instruments that were used in surgery. The medical system tells us much about the Indian approach to science. There was an emphasis on observation and experimentation.

Mind and consciousness
Vedic deities represent cognitive centers[32]. It is asserted that para-vidya or Atma-vidya (the science of consciousness) cannot be described in words or design. In the Sri-yantra, which is a representation of the cosmos, consciousness (Siva) is shown as an infinitesimal dot in the middle.[33]

The interaction between matter and consciousness is postulated in terms of an observation process called Dristi-Sristi (creation through observation), which is consistent with a world governed by laws[34]. In the orthodox interpretation of the quantum theory, consciousness is a separate category as in Vedanta.[35]

Modern scientific subjects like physics, computer science, and neuroscience have been unable to explain the phenomenon of consciousness. Philosophy cannot reconcile our sense of freedom and agency with the framework of machine-like laws. In physical theory there is no place for the observer, computer science cannot explain how awareness arises in the brain-machine, and neuroscience has not found any neural correlate of consciousness.[36]

At the same time, the very association of information with physical systems as is done using entropy implies postulation of consciousness. So the use of the reductionist method in the analysis of consciousness has hit a wall.

Indian texts assert that the phenomenon of consciousness cannot be studied directly as a material property. Their analysis of consciousness using indirect methods may very well be relevant for further progress of this question in contemporary science.

Scientific speculations and more
Indian thought is unique in the breadth and scope of its scientific speculations that are scattered within its high literature. These range from airplanes (Ramayana) to weapons that can destroy the world (Mahabharata), and to the most astonishing abstract ideas in a text called Yoga-Vasistha.[37]

Many texts speak of the relativity of time and space — abstract concepts that developed in the scientific context just a hundred years ago. The Puranas describe countless universes and time flowing at different rates for different observers.

The Mahabharata has an account of an embryo divided into one hundred parts each becoming, after maturation in a separate pot, a healthy baby; this is how the Kaurava brothers are born. There is also mention of conception in one womb transferred to another: this is how Balarama is a brother to Krishna although he was born to a different mother. This Epic has a major section on battle with a spaceship whose occupants wear airtight suits (Saubha Parva). Are these to be seen as an early form of science fiction?

Universes defined recursively are described in the famous episode of Indra and the ants in Brahmavaivarta Purana. Here Visnu in the guise of a boy, explains to Indra that the ants he sees walking on the ground have all been Indras in their own solar systems at different times. These flights of imagination are more than a straightforward generalization of the motions of the planets into a cyclic universe.

The context of modern science fiction is clear: it is the liberation of the earlier modes of thought by the revolutionary developments of 20th-century science and technology. But how was science fiction integrated into the mainstream of Indian literary tradition over two thousand years ago? What was the intellectual ferment in which such sophisticated ideas arose?

Concluding, India’s civilization valued science and knowledge above all and some of the most extraordinary scientific advances took place there. These include the earliest astronomy, geometry, number theory, the Indian numeral system, the idea of physical laws and invariance, the earliest formal system to describe a complex natural phenomenon (as in Panini’s computer program-like grammar that was not rivaled for 2,500 years), a very subtle Yoga psychology, and the idea of immunization in medicine.

This creativity did not end with the ancient period. For India’s continuing relevance in the world of science, see The Indian foundations of modern science.[16]

Note:
1. The views expressed here are those of the author and do not necessarily represent or reflect the views of PGurus.

References:

https://www.pgurus.com/a-very-brief-history-of-indian-science/

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

A model of Mercury is shown previously. Now, there are plural models. Length of lods and mass of weight each is different. These are revoleved around separately on the real orbit of Mercury. Maybe, all will be explained by Newton’s theory (including 575 arcsec).

• Science in Hinduism-Einstein Theory of relativity

Posted By Sarin on Jan 27, 2013

Einstein is widely acclaimed as the greatest ever scientist born on earth. He is credited for his theories like speed of light, theory of relativity, time dilation and other concepts related to space time continuum. However, you might be surprised that all his theories have their roots in ancient Indian scriptures. It is quite possible that Einstein must have derived his scientific theories from Indian scriptures or might have heard about his theories in indian scriptures which is very evident from his quotes on India and its culture. Moreover, he was a great admirer of Indian personalities like Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore. Since Mahatma Gandhi was the follower of bhagavad gita, Einstein must have read bhagavad gita and after thoroughly understanding it, must have said the following words about bhagavad gita.

“When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous.” -Albert Einstein

Theory of Relativity in Indian scriptures

There are innumerable examples of Einstein theory of relativity in ancient Indian scriptures. Modern Scientists are awestruck on seeing the strikingly similar concepts in Indian scriptures while others are surprised to find high-fi scientific concepts in Indians scriptures written thousands of years ago. Many Indian scientists consider Indian scriptures as world past history and are researching Vedas and other ancient literatures for more scientific discoveries.
Before I give the practical examples of Einstein “Theory of relativity” in Indian scriptures, it is very important for us to understand what Einstein “Theory of relativity” exactly is.

Practical Example of Theory of Relativity

Suppose you are kidnapped and carried in a private smooth vehicle travelling at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour. Now you are not aware that you are travelling along with the vehicle at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour. If you look out the window, you will feel that your vehicle is stationary and the person standing outside is moving at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour. But the person standing on a road feels that he is stationary and your vehicle is moving at a speed at 100 kilometers per hour. Another stationary person might feel that your vehicle is stationary and the road is moving at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour.

This situation is very similar to our observance that the earth is stationary and the sun & moon moves from east to west.
Einstein theory of relativity is very well explained in the below YouTube video. Please understand it nicely.
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Short conclusion of Einstein theory of relativity
1) Nothing travels faster than light.
2) It is not possible to say which object is stationary and which object is moving.
3) Every observer is correct in thinking that he is stationary and everything else is moving around.
4) Time is relative to your motion. If you travel faster, time moves slowly. If you travel at speed of light, clock stops ticking and so, even if you travel for one year, you will be of the same age you were when you started travelling at speed of light.

Suppose you are 28 years old and your brother is 26 years old. Now you start travelling from earth to space at speed of light for twenty human years. When you return back to earth, you find that you are still young and 28 years old but your brother has grown old and is 46 years old. You will be surprised to know that your younger brother has became elder and you have become the younger one.

This concept of relativity has been proved by American scientist and astronauts travelling in space on their spacecrafts. Even when the astronauts travel in spaceships for years, they feel like travelling for only few days.

Theory of relativity in Indian scriptures

Now, I am going to depict the above theoretical concept in ancient Indian stories.

To understand the story, below is the concept you must apprehend.

According to Indian scriptures, Brahma is the creator of this universe and the planet where he resides is called as “Brahma-Lok”. His creation aspect is repetitive in nature where there is a Satya yuga (Golden age) which spans for 1.728 million years, followed by Treta yuga(Silver age) spanning 1.296 million years, followed by Dwapar yuga (Bronze age) spanning 864 million years followed by Kali yuga(Dark age) spanning 432000 million years. These four yugas are repeated 71 times to form one manvantara. Manvantara is repeated fourteen times to form Half kalpa, meaning One day of Lord brahma. Another half kalpa is night of Lord Brahma.

Below image will help you in better understanding the Indian concept of time.

https://mallstuffs.com/Blogs/BlogImages/ScienceinHinduism-EinsteinTheoryofrelativity0.png

Story of Kakudmi in Brahmalok

In satya yuga(Golden age), there lived a benevolent and courageous king called Kakudmi. He had a very beautiful daughter named revati, endowed with auspicious and mystical qualities. King Kakudmi was not able to find a suitable match for her in the entire earth and decides to travel to Brahmalok (Which exist millions of light years away from earth). When they arrived at brahma lok, Lord Brahma was listening to a musical performance by celestial Dancers. King kakudmi waited patiently for sometime till the musical performance was finished. After the musical performance when Lord Brahma asked the king for his problem, he said “I am not able to find a suitable match for my daughter ‘Revati’”. Then Lord Brahma smiles and explains that time runs differently on different planes of existence. Your few minutes in my celestial planets are equivalent to many yugas on earth. Brahma said by the time you came and stayed here, already 27 Manvantara have passed. “O King, all your ministers, wives, kinsmen, father etc, all those whom you have accepted as your sweetheart has swept away in the course of time. Today, nobody on earth knows about you or your descendants”. Shocked and surprised, king looks for a solution. Then Brahma says “If you start now, by the time you reach earth, you will be in Dwapar yuga of 28 Manvantara. There you can marry your daughter to Balaram, the avatar of Sheshnath, Lord Vishnu serpent. And You will be granted Moksha(Salvation) by none other than lord Krishna, avatar of lord Vishnu for that yuga.”

Now this story is very well explained in Indian television serial “Shri Krishna”. Search for the video on youtube.

The video is in Hindi without English subtitles. I wanted to upload this video in English but I can’t because of copyright issues. Since more than 65% of my visitors are from US and other non-Hindi speaking countries, I will give second to second translation of the above video.
King kakudmi: “In the entire earth, I did not see a single suitable match for my daughter ‘Revati’. So, I have come here to ask you, on which celestial planet, I shall find a suitable match for her and who will be her husband.”
Lord Brahma: “You will find a husband for her at the earth itself.”
King kakudmi:”But O lord, I didn’t find a single king or prince suitable for her on earth.”
Lord Brahma: “The Kings and princes whom you are talking about, no longer exist at this moment”
King kakudmi:”O Lord, I didn’t understand.”
Lord Brahma: “Son, Speed of time on earth and my celestial planet (Brahmalok) is different. On earth, speed of time is so fast that in one day of Brahms loka, many yugas on earth have passed. During your stay on Brahma loka, three yugas have passed on earth. O king, don’t waste time any more. Go to earth as early as possible. Till you reach there, Dwapar yuga would have ended. At that time, Lord Sheshnath would incarnate in a human form. He along with the ever-pervading god Lord krishna may be playing game (illusions) on earth. Your daughter Revati in reality is a wife of sheshnath. Under the blessings of Devi nagalakshmi, she has incarnated on earth to serve her husband sheshnath. ”
kakudmi pays respect to her incarnated daughter Revati.
Lord Brahma “By giving your daughter to sheshnath, not only you will be free from your responsibility but also will you get salvation from lord Krishna. You will get the happiness of staying forever on the foots of ever pervading god.”
King kakudmi and Daughter revati pay their respects to lord Brahma
Travelling at speed greater than light, Narada, Celestial son of Brahma announces this news to lord Krishna.
Lord Krishna: “You news is very auspicious. I am very happy.”
Sage Narada: “Narayan Narayan(Narayan is name of lord vishnu). (Looking through his divine perception) narada tells lord Krishna about the travelling of various celestial planets by Princess Revati and father Kakudmi. They will be reaching on earth soon. So, prepare for welcoming them. I am leaving.”
King kakudmi: “Daughter, we have reached earth But how will we find Lord sheshnath in this big earth.”
Revati: “Hey father, your words are like asking how to find light in darkness. Light shows the path to the source. Look at the earth carefully. You will find the lord yourself.”
Revati: “Look at that Daughter. Look!!! Let’s go. We should reach fast.”

In the next video, you can see the marriage of Revati with sheshnath.
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In this video, there is an interesting concept. In this video, you can see that Size of Revati and king kakudmi are very huge. Srimag bhagavatam tells that there is degrading level of species in each yuga. In satya yuga, all species are very large in size. In Treta yuga, species are relatively small compared to Satya yuga and so on with next yugas. This also explains why the animals were bigger millions of years ago and the findings of ancient giant human skeletons. There’re few more scientific concept in the above video but that shall be a separate topic of discussion but I would like to see if you are able to find any scientific concepts in this video.

Now the next story shows how Brahma was fooled in his own illusion.

Brahma vimohana Lila:

Once Lord Krishna was playing with cows and friends at Vrindavan. Brahma didn’t believe that the little kid Krishna is an incarnation of lord Vishnu. He decides to prove it to his spy. Brahma steals all the lord Krishna friends including cows and takes them to Brahma lok. When lord Krishna realizes the test of Brahma, he decides to teach Brahma a lesson. Through his mystical power, Lord Krishna creates identical copies of his friends and cows. When truti( fraction of a second) passes on brahma loka, Brahma realizes that one year has passed on earth. Brahma decides to investigate on the happenings of vrindavan and was bewildered to see Krishna playing with his friends and calves just like before. Seeing the boys and calves simultaneously both on earth and Brahma lok, Brahma realizes that Krishna is none other than lord Vishnu. Brahma also sees other Brahmas which explains the scientific concept of multiple universe, one Brahma for each universe. Krishna explains the concept of multiple universes to lord Brahma. Brahma then apologizes and sends all lord Krishna friend’s back to earth.

This story is very well explained in the below video. This video is in English and music is copied from “lord of the rings” movie.
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The Stealing of the Boys and Calves by Brahma

The Sanskrit word used in this story is truti. According to Vedic astronomy, truti means 1/33750 of a second.

Muchukund fight with demons in Indra loka

In treta yuga, When demons attacked Deva loka(Celestial planet few layers above earth), Indra(Lord of heaven) requested valiant warriors from other planets to fight against demons. King Muchukund from earth joined indra to fight against the demon. Their fight lasted for one year and ultimately, indra and other deities defeated the demons. After the battle, Indra asked Muchukund for a boon. King Muchukund said “I want to go back to earth to meet my family”. In a grim voice, Indra said “You fought here for only one year but millions of years have passed on earth and no one on earth remembers you now”.

See the video of this story along with the translation

Fight with demons
Indra praises Muchukund and asks for a boon.
Muchukund: “I don’t need any boon. I have everything on earth courtesy of the blessings of my father and ancestors. I have a huge kingdom where all the comforts are waiting for me. I have so much happiness on earth that I don’t need anything else. So, please do me a favor by allowing me to go to earth. I have fulfilled my responsibility of serving you. You don’t need me anymore. Also, Lord shiva son has agreed to become commander in chief of your army. So, your future is safe now and hence, I request you to send me on earth where my kinsmen and wives are waiting for me”
Indra: I cannot give you this permission
Muchukund: “Cannot give??..Why can’t you?… Was there anything lacking in my servitude?”….
Muchukund in a angry voice: “But What?…. But What Lord?…. But What Lord?….”
Indra: “King muchukund, No one from your family Exist on earth now”
muchukund: “No one exists there now. What are you saying? Did my enemies destroyed my kingdom?”
Indra: “No Emperor Muchukund. Nothing like that happened. This happened because of speed of time.”
Muchukund: “Speed of time ….I didn’t understand O lord”.
Indra: “King, You don’t know about speed of time. Speed of time is different in heaven and earth. Speed of time is very fast on earth. So, by the time you stayed here, one yuga has passed on earth. So much time has passed that nor your son is there nor your wives nor your citizens. On the contrary, No one knows about your clan ‘Ishvaku’.”
muchukund: “How did this happen my lord?”
Indra: “This is speed of time, O king. In this world, only god is indestructible else every born being has to die. Even the deities here have to die. On our time, Time god will destroy us. When I die, somebody else will take my place. So, I request you to forget about the ones who no longer exist and it is my wish that you ask for the pleasures you are looking for. I will grant you all such pleasures and comforts. I want to give you a boon. Wealth, sex, happiness, fame or anything else. I can give you anything except Moksha(Salvation) because the power of giving salvation is only with lord shiva and lord Vishnu. Ask? Ask For boon, O king? Ask For boon, O king?”

There may be many such more stories but as of now I have not studied all Indian scriptures. So, these are the only stories I am aware of. In Indian scriptures, science is explained through stories. So, instead of believing Indian scriptures as mythology, better start decoding it for absolute truth.

I will conclude this article with the following sentences from the Bhagavat Purana which explains the relativity of time:

“… One’s life endures for only one hundred years, in terms of the times in the different planets… Eternal time is certainly the controller of different dimensions, from that of the atom up to the super-divisions of the duration of Brahmâ’s life; but, nevertheless, it is controlled by the Supreme. Time can control only those who are body conscious, even up to the Satyaloka or the other higher planets of the universe.”

• Theory of relativity, wormhole and Time Travel in Hinduism

“When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous.” -Albert Einstein
Bohr, Heisenberg and Schrödinger regularly read Vedic texts. Heisenberg stated, “Quantum theory will not look ridiculous to people who have read Vedanta.”
Concepts introduced by the theories of relativity include:
1. Measurements of various quantities are relative to the velocities of observers. In particular, space contracts and time dilates.
2. Spacetime: space and time should be considered together and in relation to each other.
3.The speed of light is nonetheless invariant, the same for all observers.

According to Hindu scriptures, Brahma is the creator of this universe and the planet where he resides is called as “Brahma-Lok”. His creation aspect is repetitive in nature where there is a Satya yuga (Golden age) which spans for 1.728 million years, followed by Treta yuga(Silver age) spanning 1.296 million years, followed by Dwapar yuga (Bronze age) spanning 864 million years followed by Kali yuga(Dark age) spanning 432000 million years. These four yugas are repeated 71 times to form one manvantara. Manvantara is repeated fourteen times to form Half kalpa, meaning One day of Lord brahma. Another half kalpa is night of Lord Brahma.

In satya yuga(Golden age), there lived a benevolent and courageous king called Kakudmi. He had a very beautiful daughter named Revati, endowed with auspicious and mystical qualities. King Kakudmi was not able to find a suitable match for her in the entire earth and decides to travel to Brahmalok (Which exist millions of light years away from earth). When they arrived at brahma lok, Lord Brahma was listening to a musical performance by celestial Dancers. King kakudmi waited patiently for sometime till the musical performance was finished. After the musical performance when Lord Brahma asked the king for his problem, he said “I am not able to find a suitable match for my daughter ‘Revati’”. Then Lord Brahma smiles and explains that time runs differently on different planes of existence. Your few minutes in my celestial planets are equivalent to many yugas on earth.Lord Brahma: “Son, Speed of time on earth and my celestial planet (Brahmalok) is different. On earth, speed of time is so fast that in one day of Brahms loka, many yugas on earth have passed. During your stay on Brahma loka, three yugas have passed on earth. O king, don’t waste time any more. Go to earth as early as possible. Till you reach there, Dwapar yuga would have ended. At that time, Sheshnaag would incarnate in a human form. He along with the ever-pervading god Lord Krishna may be playing game (illusions) on earth. Your daughter Revati in reality is a wife of Sheshnaag. Under the blessings of Devi Nagalakshmi, she has incarnated on earth to serve her husband Sheshnaag. ”

Brahma said by the time you came and stayed here, already 27 Manvantara have passed. “O King, all your ministers, wives, kinsmen, father etc, all those whom you have accepted as your sweetheart has swept away in the course of time. Today, nobody on earth knows about you or your descendants”. Shocked and surprised, king looks for a solution. Then Brahma says “If you start now, by the time you reach earth, you will be in Dwapar yuga of 28 Manvantara. There you can marry your daughter to Balaram, the avatar of Sheshnaag, Lord Vishnu serpent. And You will be granted Moksha(Salvation) by none other than Lord Krishna, avatar of Lord Vishnu for that yuga.”

This concept of relativity has been proved by American scientist and astronauts travelling in space on their spacecrafts. Even when the astronauts travel in spaceships for years, they feel like travelling for only few days.

HINDUISM IS PURE UNOBSCURED SCIENCE

In INTERSTELLAR movie, there is a concept- 1 Hour on Miller planet is equal to 7 Years on Earth.
Due to a technical snag, the team is forced to spend 3 hours on that planet resulting in loss of 23 years on Earth. Which means 10 years old daughter of Hero becomes 33 years old and the hero remains of the same age.

In Hindu Mythology, once in the war between Gods & Demons, Indra took help of (Human) king Muchukunda.
King Muchukunda helped gods in the war but the war lasted for 1 year and that was in heaven.

After the war was over, when Muchukunda expresses desire to go back to earth to meet his family, Indra tells him that 1 year in Heaven is equal to 360 years on Earth hence his family & kingdom must have been destroyed by now with the passage of time.
Bhagavat Purana which explains the relativity of time:
“… One’s life endures for only one hundred years, in terms of the times in the different planets… Eternal time is certainly the controller of different dimensions, from that of the atom up to the super-divisions of the duration of Brahmâ’s life; but, nevertheless, it is controlled by the Supreme. Time can control only those who are body conscious, even up to the Satyal

• Einstein, Parallel Universes and Hindu Philosophy

The General Theory of Relativity has completely changed our understandings of the Universe. It is one of the towering achievements of the 20th-century physics. It explains that the force of gravity arises from the curvature of space and time.

By Dr. A.B. Thapa

https://www.spotlightnepal.com/author/dr-ab-thapa/

Dec. 9, 2017, 3:43 p.m. Published in Magazine Issue: VOL.11, No.10, December 08-2017 (Mangsir 22, 2074) Online Register Number: DOI 584/074-75

Albert Einstein, who was not very bright in a study during his early life, is recognized as the world’s most genius person of all time. He completely changed the fabric of science. His discoveries opened the door to the atomic age. In 1905 Einstein developed the quantum theory of light which established that light exists as tiny particles called photons. In the same year, Einstein completed his Special Relativity Theory, which established that energy and matter are linked. After eight years of research on the problem of gravity Einstein completed in 1915 the General Theory of Relativity. In 1917, Einstein published a paper applying the General Theory of Relativity to model the behavior of entire Universe.

General Theory of Relativity

The General Theory of Relativity has completely changed our understandings of the Universe. It is one of the towering achievements of the 20th-century physics. It explains that the force of gravity arises from the curvature of space and time. Einstein showed that the matter and energy actually mold the shape of space and the flow of time. Very complicated geometrical ideas of the Riemannian manifold and of the curvature associated with these manifold played an essential role in allowing for a rigorous mathematical foundation of Einstein’s General Relativity Theory.

Einstein’s landmark theory predicted the existence of gravitational waves 100 years before they were first detected by NASA by using interferometers. According to Einstein’s theory, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. General relativity is the basis of the current cosmological model of a consistently expanding universe.

Next Nobel Prize Denied

Einstein had been awarded Nobel Prize in 1921 for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. Surprisingly Einstein was not awarded separately another Nobel Prize for his historic General Relativity Theory though some years back in 1903 and 1911 Madame Curie was awarded twice Nobel prize for her two separate works in the field of radioactivity. Ironically, the General Theory of Relativity played only a minor indirect role in awarding Nobel Prize to Einstein, while 14 Nobel prizes were awarded in the period between 1933 and 2006 to different scientists for works based on Einstein’s relativity theory.

Unified Field Theory

Albert Einstein, who died in 1955 spent his last 30 years of life unsuccessfully searching for a unified field theory. In the mid-19th century, James Clerk Maxwell had formulated the first field theory related to electromagnetism. Similarly, in 20th century Albert Einstein developed the general theory of relativity, which is field theory of gravitation. However, Einstein was unsuccessful in his attempts to develop a unified single field theory by merging electromagnetism and gravity.

It has become clear that there should be further studies to develop unified field theory. One of such studies recognized by many renowned scientists is the STRING THEORY. It is the quantum theory of minute strings and membranes. The string theory is expected to be the ultimate answer in search of a unified field theory that includes gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force ( it is binding force that provides attraction between protons and neutrons and holds an atom’s nucleus together), weak nuclear force ( weak nuclear force is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission) and perhaps a fifth force related with still not fully understood dark matter.

String Theory

Brien Green, Professor of Mathematics and Cosmology at the University of Columbia USA, is the best-known proponent of STRING THEORY. String theory hypothesizes that string-like filaments of vibrating energy create every particle and force in the universe. All the different kinds of particles arise from the different notes the string can play. Everything is a cosmic symphony. All the particles of the world are notes that the string can play.

The string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. This theory has been applied to a variety of problems in black hole physics, early universe cosmology, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Because string theory potentially is a unified description of gravity and all other forces, it is indeed a candidate for the unified theory.

In everyday life, there are three dimensions of space: height, width, and length. In Einstein’s general theory of relativity, time is treated as an additional dimension. One fundamental factor of string theory is that it requires 11-dimensions including one-time dimension for its mathematical consistency.

Parallel Universes Theory

Dr. Michio Kaku, physicist and a renowned scientist in the field of cosmology, who was teaching at Princeton University, has said that string theory has demonstrated the existence of parallel universes. According to that theory, the universe is a bubble that exists alongside other similar parallel universes.

According to Andrei Linde, a Russian Professor of Cosmology and Physics at the University of Stanford, USA, who is playing the lead role in advancing the theory of PARALLEL UNIVERSES, the cosmos, a gas like entity is similar to a Swiss cheese. The cheesy part of the cheese is the energy. At various parts, energy dissipates and creates the little opening which grows over time. According to inflationary cosmology, the burst is not one single event. There can be many many inflationary bursts each time accompanied by the creation of the universe.

Hindu Philosophy

Prof. Andrei Linde has said to his audience in one of his lectures about the vastness of the cosmos described in the Hindu philosophy to draw a kind of similarity with his own vision of the parallel universes. He has described that according to the Hindu Puran the Arjun was terribly shaken with fright when the God Krishna on his request showed him the awfully vast expense of the cosmos.

There is yet another amazing example of a striking similarity between an incident described in the Hindu Puran and the concept of the existence of several universes. It is described in the Puran that once God Krishna took Arjun into Cosmos. Arjun was utterly surprised to find that there were other Goloks ( Universe) also in the cosmos very similar to our universe. To his great astonishment, he found another Krishna and also another Arjun in that Golok ( or Universe). How surprisingly similar is the description of the parallel universe presented by Prof. Brian Green in a lecture on Parallel Universe to amuse his audience “ There are innumerable universes in the cosmos. Few of them could be almost the exact copy of our universe. Perhaps in that universe Sera Pelain instead losing the election for vice-presidency might have even become President of the USA after winning the election.”

• Science in Hinduism: Time dilation theory written in Hindu Scriptures

28 August 2018

anantpurohit

https://myvoice.opindia.com/author/anantpurohit/

Self from a small village Khatkhati of Chhattisgarh. I have completed my Graduation in Mechanical Engineering from GEC, Bilaspur. Now, I am working as a General Manager in a Power Plant. I have much interested in spirituality and religious activity. Reading and writing are my hobbies apart from playing chess. From past 2 years I am doing research on “Science in Hindu Scriptures”.

We have already seen that ‘The Big Bang Theory’ (https://myvoice.opindia.com/2018/07/science-in-hinduism-big-bang-theory-written-in-hindu-scriptures/) and ‘Mass Energy Equivalence Theory’ (https://myvoice.opindia.com/2018/08/science-in-hinduism-2-is-mass-energy-equivalence-theory-explained-in-our-scripture/) were written in Hindu scriptures, well before the modern science revealed it. The interesting thing about Hindu scriptures is that; the more you will read logically; the more you will find the astonishing scientific facts. It will enhance further your interest thus you will get more and so on. Now, we will check if ‘Time Dilation Theory’ is written in Hindu Scriptures.

Let us start with an incident mentioned in Shrimad Bhagwat Mahapuran, 9th Skandh, Chapter 3, Shloka 27 to 34:

King Sharyati, scion of Ikshwaku, had three sons – Uttanbarhi, Aanart and Bhurishen. Raiwat was the offspring of Aanart. Raiwat had established a city Kushasthali within the sea and, ruled there along with neighboring countries Aanart etc.

Raiwat had 100 well capable and efficient sons and Kakudmi was the eldest amongst them. Kakudmi had a daughter – Raiwati. When Raiwati attained an age well enough to be married, King Kakudmi was concerned for it and visited Brahma-lok along with his daughter to consult Brahma for a suitable candidate (groom) for her. However, the time when he reached, Brahma-lok was busy in celebrating a ceremony. He waited for a short while to the end of celebration. After the ceremony got over, he bowed down in front of Brahma and discussed his concern. Hearing his concern, Brahma replied with laughing, ‘The candidates whom you are considering as probable groom for your daughter; are no more in earth, not even their son and grandson. Even the name of their descendants too is a matter of past now. All their descendants have extinct now with the time. Meanwhile during your visit, 27 Chaturyugi has been passed, and when you will return to earth you could meet Baldeo; an Anshavatar of the God; the elder brother of Lord Shri Krishna. He is the best one (groom) for your daughter.”

One could inculpate the scripture saying it utterly illogical and fictional – How irrational is the story?! How could it possible that during a short span of time, 27 Chaturyug would have been passed on earth? But wait. the one and only; who is unaware of time dilation theory; he could disapprove the scripture and could think this incident as impossible.

What is time dilation theory? The famous Time Dilation Theory is one of five concepts of relativity theory given by A. Einstein. We have already discussed one of five concepts ‘Mass Energy Equivalence Theory’ in Hindu scriptures.

Time Dilation Theory says: Time dilation is a difference in the elapsed time measured by two observers, either due to a velocity difference relative to each other, or by being differently situated relative to a gravitational field.

In simple words, a clock that is moving relative to an observer will be measured to tick slower than a clock that is at rest in the observer’s own frame of reference. A clock that is under the influence of a stronger gravitational field than an observer’s will also be measured to tick slower than the observer’s own clock.

Theoretically, time dilation would make it possible for passengers in a fast-moving vehicle to advance further into the future in a short period of their own time. For sufficiently high speeds, the effect is dramatic. For example, one year of travel might correspond to ten years on Earth. And similarly, in a different gravitational field the time is different. In a strong gravitational field, the time is slower compared to less gravitational field.

Eventually, we could relate the scientific facts and the incident mentioned in scripture. King Kakudmi was in a relative motion with rest of the earth while he was travelling to Brahma-lok and returning to earth and was in a different gravitational field during his stay at Brahma-lok for a short while till his conversation with Brahma. Which led to slower his clock from rest of the world and meanwhile 27 Chaturyug passed on earth.

Here, one may ask for the archeological evidences for Kakudmi, Raiwati, Baldeo or Kushasthali, but being a mechanical engineer, the archeological evidences are of very less important for me. I do not much bother for the historical evidence, the concept is important for me. By this incident, it is evident that the writer of Shrimad Bhagwat Mahapuran was well know of the scientific fact – time dilation. One may inculpate here saying this a work of speculation or coincidence, but certainly it is not as another similar incident is mentioned in this book. In 10th Skandh, Chapter 51, Shloka 14 to 19. In these shlokas it is mentioned, Muchukand an offspring of Mandhata; another scion of Ikshwaku; was travelled to Devlok to assist them during Devasur Sangram (war). When Dev got Kartikeya as their military chief, they thanked Muchukand and relieved him from his duties. Muchukand returned to earth. Meanwhile on earth no one present of his time. All his relatives were a matter of past now. So, he decided to sleep in a lonely cave.

It proves that these stories are not at all a coincidence but certainly the writer is aware of this complex phenomenon of time dilation. Amazing scripture!! Amazing theory.

At the last, once again I am compelled to write, we must have to read the scriptures with a scientific view. The events and incidents written in these scriptures to be thoroughly examined. If the incidents seemed to be unscientific as per modern Science, we must do intense research on those, perhaps we could add a new dimension to modern Science with a new discovery, invention.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury moves g

The perihelion shift of the earth is 11.45 arcsec / year. Main cause will be its size (size of sphere). It is the same to Mercury. In addition, the earth has a moon as a satellite that Mercury does not have. The inertial force of the moon and gravity of the sun acting on the moon are also considerable. And like Mercury, effect of other planets must be slight and unstable.v

• Time of Brahma, the Twin Paradox and Theory of Relativity!

In Srimad Bhagwata there is a story where a King takes his daughter to the “abode” or “plane” of Brahma – the creator so that He could help with the search for her husband. They wait for Brahma for a few moments and when he talks to them he says “King when you go back to Earth everything would have changed. None that you knew would be existing anymore. While you have been here a few moments, several thousand years have passed by back there on Earth!”

Is this because the “plane or abode” of the creator was only to be inhabited at a higher speed – much higher than the speed of light? I was reading “The Complete Illustrated Book of Yoga“- where this incident is mentioned. And the suggestion that the author makes is that much as the Vedic scriptures are replete with the “Voyages” to Moon or Sun or various planets and inter-galaxy imagination – while other civilizations elsewhere on this planets did not even know if Earth went around Sun or the vice versa! – is it possible that “Mind” could have been a vehicle for transportation. Often at speeds many times that of light? The speeds and vibrational energy of a “place” could be achievable by sheer application of mind.

So much for the “way” to achieve that speed but it is beyond any doubt that age of creation – as the Vedic Rishis surmised was in millions of years. No chance of any apocalypse anytime soon, sorry guys! This as was mentioned in my earlier post may been true and something which modern science may be turning towards anyways!

Given the above line of thought, is it possible that Srimad Bhagwata was actually referring to a phenomenon that Einstein later came to in his Theory of Relativity and the effects of travel at or over the speed of light (Twin Paradox)?! Whatever be the truth, at least those people were thinking “beyond” what most scientists could not even comprehend just a decade ago!!

Here is an explanation of the Vedic Time Cycles:

According to Hindu mythology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. The life span of Brahma, the creator, is 120 divine years (Mahakalpamu). Everyday, Brahma creates 14 Manus one after the other, who in turn create and regulate the world. Thus, there are fourteen generations of Manu in one day (Kalpamu) of Brahma. Each Manu’s life (Manvantaramu) consists of 71 quartets of eras. Each quartet is composed of four eras: Krita, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. The span of Krita era is 1,728,000 human years, Treta era is 1,296,000 human years, Dvapara era is 864,000 human years and Kali era is 432,000 human years. When Manu perishes at the end of his life, Brahma creates the next Manu and the cycle continues until all fourteen Manus and the Universe perish by the end of the day. When night falls, Brahma goes to sleep for a period of time equal to fourteen lives of Manus. The next morning, he begins the creation with first Manu again. The cycle goes on for 120 divine years at the end of which Brahma himself perishes and is regenerated.

The present period is the Kaliyuga or last era of the seventh Manu’s life. This Kaliyuga began 5,101 years ago (in 3101 BC), at the end of the Dvapara era that was marked by the death of lord Krishna, the mortal incarnation of Vishnu. The beginning of the new Yugamu (era) is known as “Yugadi/Ugadi“, and is celebrated every year on the first day (Paadyami) of the first month (Chaitramu) of the 12-month annual cycle.
Here is the breakdown of the various elements of timeon a larger scale and the explanations:

One cycle of the above four yugas is one mahayuga (4.32 million solar years)
A manvantara consists of 71 mahayugas (306,720,000 solar years)
After each manvantara follows one Sandhi Kala of the same duration as a Krita Yuga (1,728,000 = 4x solar years). (It is said that during a Sandhi Kala, the entire earth is submerged in water.)
A kalpa consists of a period of 1,728,000 solar years called Adi Sandhi, followed by 14 manvantaras and Sandhi Kalas.
A day of Brahma equals
(14 times 71 mahayugas) + (15 times 4x solar years)

= 994 mahayugas + (60 x solar years)

= 994 mahayugas + (6 times 10 x ) solar years

= 994 mahayugas + 6 mahayugas

= 1000 mahayugas

as is confirmed by the Gita statement “sahasra-yuga paryantam ahar-yad brahmano viduH”, meaning, a day of brahma is of 1000 (maha-)yugas.

Thus a day of Brahma, kalpa, is of duration: 4.32 billion solar years.

Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma; the life cycle of Brahma is one hundred years of Brahma, or 311 trillion years. We are currently in the 51st year of the present Brahma and so about 155 trillion years have elapsed since He took over as Brahma.

The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar.

• The Science of the Rishis: The Spiritual and Material Discoveries of the Ancient Sages of India (English Edition)

Twashtaaya Namaha!

A complete introduction to Sanatana Dharma, the spiritual science of the Hindu sages

• Examines how many core concepts of Hinduism, including Brahman, Atman, bhakti, karma, and reincarnation, relate to modern science • Explores the scientific discoveries of the rishis, ancient Vedic sages, and how they have only recently been rediscovered by Western scientists • Reveals the concepts of quantum physics hidden within the Vedas, the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads, and the Puranas Called “the scientists of Hinduism,” the rishis of ancient India were the scribes of the Vedas. They developed the spiritual science of Hinduism, Sanatana Dharma, as their way of ensuring the constant renewal and progress of India’s spiritual tradition and culture. Sanatana Dharma permeates every aspect of Hindu culture, from religion to the arts to the sciences. Woven within its Vedic texts lie all of the essential concepts of quantum physics and other modern scientific discoveries. Providing a complete introduction to the science of Sanatana Dharma, Vanamali reveals how the core concepts of Hinduism, including Brahman, Atman, bhakti, karma, and reincarnation, relate to modern science and how the scientific discoveries of the ancient rishis have been recently rediscovered by the West. She examines the scientific principles within the classic stories and texts of India, including the Vedas, the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads, and the Puranas. Within the teachings of the ancient Puranic sages and saints such as Valmiki and Vyasa and legendary physicians and mathematician-philosophers such as Aryabhatta and Varahamihir, the author reveals great scientific truths—not those believed by the ancient world, but truths still upheld by modern science, particularly quantum physics. She explores Desha and Kaala (Space and Time), Shankara and his philosophy of Advaita Vedanta, and the Hindu sciences of mathematics, astronomy, and Vedic astrology. In illustrating the scientific basis of Hinduism and the discoveries of its sages, Vanamali provides a window into the depths of this most ancient spiritual way of life.

Chapter 9
Desha and Kaala
(Space and Time)

In religion, India is the only millionaire–the one land which all men desire to see and having seen once by even a glimpse, would not give that glimpse for all the shows of all the rest of the globe combined.
–Mark Twain

Time is the most mysterious of god’s powers. We really don’t know how or why we calculate time. It has always been one of Nature’s untameables. Even though the mind has created it, the mind cannot understand it.

Time finds no place in Advaita Vedanta though space gets some prominence. Space is a positive entity. It is a product. On the contrary, time is a nonentity. It is not a product. In reality, there is nothing like time. Advaita Vedanta says that it is purely a mental concept. In the absence of any activity or event, there cannot be any mental concept of time. With the occurrence of more than one event, the mind constructs the concept called “time.”

Classical physics had always postulated that Time and Space were eternal realities. Space and time as independently existing realities were absolutes for Newton. He considered atoms to be the elementary building blocks of the universe. They were presumed to be absolutely solid, impenetrable, indestructible, and unchangeable. He believed in the strictly causal nature of physical phenomena. So it was a big shock to the classical physicist to hear Einstein’s theory of matter. Hardly had they recovered from this shock when came the second shock with his theory of relativity. Einstein and many of the scientists who came after him proved that time and space are relative. This is a shocking idea to us, bound as we are to our clocks and time schedules.

The fact that Time and Space are not eternal verities but convenient suppositions of the mind were well known to the rishis. They declared that human life is completely conditioned by the three upadhis (conditionings) known as desha, kaala, and nimitta–space, time, and causation. Everything we see in the world exists in space for a certain period of time and has a cause. This is how the mind works. Without these three upadhis, the mind cannot function.

Einstein said that one cannot talk about space without bringing in time. All measurements involving space and time are devoid of absolute significance. The example of a pair of twins, who are twenty years old, is given. One twin goes in a spacecraft that goes at 9/10 of the speed of light. He returns to Earth when he is forty-six years old but finds that his twin has already turned eighty!

The same phenomenon is described in our Puranas, which shows that they were well aware of the fact that velocity reduces time. In the Bhagavad Purana, the king called Raivathan goes with his daughter, Revathi, to the world of Brahma and stays there only for the duration of a few minutes, but when he returns he finds the whole world has changed and none of the people he knew existed anymore. They were already dead and gone. Moreover, he finds that people have shrunk in size whereas he and his daughter were very tall. He could not find anyone who could match his daughter in size so as to be able to marry her. At last he found that the only man who could match her was Balarama, Lord Krishna’s brother. There are many other instances that show us that the ancients were well aware of the fact that time and space and velocity are irrevocably bound together.

The moment we demarcate ourselves as belonging to a specified place and time, that moment we separate ourselves from our roots, we bring suffering on ourselves. We are the creators of time and space. When we bring energy to conscious awareness, through the act of perception, we create separate objects that exist in space through a measured continuum called time. By creating time and space, we create our own separateness.

Brahman alone is said to be sat, or pure existence. Brahman is beyond time. Hinduism does not declare the world to be asat, or nonexistent. The jagat, or world, is mithya and not asat. It is called mithya because it has a dependent and relative existence. It is not eternal and timeless, but it exists on the substratum of the Brahman. The universe has a beginning and thus it also has an end. Time starts with the beginning of the universe and ends with its dissolution. Space is born with the origin of the universe and expands and contracts, finally dissolving with the dissolution of the universe. Thus, the universe is known as mithya. Brahma Satyam, jagat mithya (Brahman alone is Real and the world unreal) is what our scriptures say.

Without change and movement nothing can exist even for a moment. The stars are revolving, the planets are rotating, the galaxies are moving, and the whole universe is expanding. This is applicable to the subatomic world also, where every particle is constantly in motion. This movement is what gives rise to the illusion of space and time! The Sanskrit word for the world is jagat–that which is ever moving and ever changing. By giving the name jagat to the world, we can realize that the ancients knew this important fact.

Even though they denied any absolute existence to time, the rishis had their own method of calculating time since it is an obvious fact of our human life. Sanskrit has had words starting from micro seconds to millennia. They knew of light-years. The life span of Brahma, the creator, is known as a kalpa, which is the longest period of time that we can think of–millions of light-years. They also had words to describe the minutest period of time, less than the blink of an eye. They knew about atoms, which were called anus, and even particles, which were called paramanus.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

This is the top of tall tower. Two rods of equal mass and different length are arranged vertically (heigtht of center of gravity is the same). Now, two rods start to fall at the same time. The fall of center of gravity will not be the same. Because the strength of gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. This will be the main cause for perihelion shift of Mercury.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

In an binary system (formed by main star and companion star), periapis is shifted also. Motion of companion star (apsidal shift) will be depending considerably on its size. Common view (says main cause is pertubation of other planets) will be invalid.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury

Let’s reconsider the main cause of perihelion shift again. On Mercury or Venus, main cause will be the size of sphere. On Earth or Mars, effect of satellite is added. On asteroids each, effects of size is negligible. On Jupiter or Saturn each, the powerful and unstable effect of the other will act. On Uranus or Neptune each, slight and unstable effect of the other all planets will act. Anyway, common view on Mercury is wrong.

• Apply Relativity Theory in Life

The man followed the advice of the sage and brought the pets as told. After one month, he returned to the sage and cried even louder, ‘O Master! Life has become terrible. My house is too crowded and it badly stinks of garbage always. Please help me.’ To his plea, the sage advised him to shift the pets somewhere else and asked him to meet after a month. ‘Thank you so much for restoring peace into his life,’ the man said happily to the sage after a month. The sage smiled and said, ‘Dear son! If you recollect, there are as many members in your house as there were when you came to me for the first time. Only your perspective has changed now, after you experienced even harder situations than earlier.’
Actually, this is life. When we see things relatively with tougher circumstances, we are able to cherish the way things are going on. Only after walking in the burning sun can one understand the bliss that shade is.

Therefore, count the blessings of life when you find yourself knee-deep into problems. Till we encounter sorrow, we aren’t able to value the joys that God has blessed us with.

• “I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness.

Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulates consciousness.”

Max Planck – Nobel prize winning theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory.

“The stream of knowledge is heading toward a non-mechanical reality; the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears to be an accidental intruder into the realm of matter, we ought rather hail it as the creator and governor of the realm of matter.

Get over it, and accept the inarguable conclusion. The universe is immaterial, mental and spiritual”.

Pioneering physicist Sir James Jeans.

“What we call matter, is merely energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to be perceptible to our senses”

Albert Einstein – Theoretical physicist, originator of the theory of relativity.

“A fundamental conclusion of the new physics also acknowledges that the observer creates the reality. As observers, we are personally involved with the creation of our own reality. Physicists are being forced to admit that the universe is a “mental” construction”.

RC Henry – professor of physics and astronomy

“The atoms or elementary particles themselves are not real; they form a world of potentialities or possibilities rather than one of things

or facts.”
Werner Heisenberg – Pioneering particle physicist.

“Consciousness should be found in the quantum field rather than in the brain. It is part of our universe, so any physical theory which makes no proper place for it falls fundamentally short of providing a genuine description of the world”.

Sir Roger Penrose – Ground breaking theoretical physicist.

“Everything we call real, is made of things that cannot be regarded as real” Neils Bohr – Nobel winning particle physicist.

“If we want to understand the universe we should think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration”.

Nikolai Tesla – Inventive genius and mathematician

“The physicists are coming to the same conclusion that the mystics always had, that it is just the vibration from which everything came into being”.

“We are what we think. All that we are, arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts we make the world.”

Siddhartha Gautama – The “Buddha” (The enlightened one)

https://static.wixstatic.com/media/76171f_506fa32f714d48cab15c44391e58730b~mv2.jpg/v1/fill/w_821,h_452,al_c,q_85/PP%20QUOTE%20UNIVERSAL%20MIND%201_JPG.webp

Stillness of mind is required, in order to comprehend our movement which is the consciousness of our universe. A butterfly will alight only on the shoulder of a person who is still, not the person who is running and jumping with frenzy. It is through the quietening and meditation of the mind that will come to a place of understanding, not by thoughts or experiments of the brain, which overflows with opinions , judgments, sentiments and crippling beliefs, nor by words of the mouth which deceive, mislead and confuse, nor by the activities, actions, labour or toil of the body, which serves only to enslave us further into the illusion of physical reality.

Peter Weiz – From the Universal Mind

• TIME TRAVEL MYTHOLOGY:

MAHABHARATA, CIRCA 400BCE

One of the very first time travel stories recorded in history appears in the Hindu epic, Mahabharata, speculated to be written as early as 400BC. The story follows a king, his daughter, and their search for a perfect suitor.

Revati was the only daughter of King Kakudmi, a powerful monarch who ruled Kusasthali, a prosperous and advanced kingdom under the sea. Thinking no one could prove to be good enough to marry his beautiful daughter, Kakudmi took Revati with him to Brahmaloka, the home of Brahma, to ask the god’s advice about finding a suitable husband for her.

Brahma was listening to a musical performance when they arrived, and so they waited patiently until the performance was finished. Finally, King Kakudmi humbly bowed and made his request:

“O Brahm! To whom shall I betroth this daughter? I have come to you to ask on this point I have searched for many princes and seen also a good many of them and none of them is to my liking and so my mind is not at rest.”

Brahma laughed at the foolishness of the King.

“O King! The princes that you thought would become the bridegroom of your daughter, all died; their sons and grandsons and their friends even have all passed away.”

Time, Brahma goes on to explain, runs differently on different planes of existence. During the time they had waited in Brahmaloka to see him, 27 chatur-yugas, had passed on Earth. Everything that Kakudmi had and owned, his friends and family, his sons and wife, his armies and treasures, had vanished with the time that had passed. The King and his daughter were overcome with astonishment and grief for everything they had lost, but Brahma comforted them, and recommended a worthy husband currently on earth: Balarama, the twin brother of Krishna.

What is really interesting though, is how similar their view of time was 2500 years ago to how physicists and astronomers conceptualize space-time today. In the theory of relativity as proposed by Albert Einstein, time is relative to the observer’s frame of reference — it depends on the observer’s motion and strength of gravity. For instance, one could argue that time here on earth runs slower than in space because gravity slows the passage of time.

In the same way that Einstein says time is relative to the observer’s frame of reference — it depends on the observer’s motion and strength of gravity, Brahma tells the father and daughter 2500 years before Einstein was even born that time runs differently on different planes of existence. That is, during the time they had waited in Brahmaloka to see Brahma 27 chatur-yugas had passed on Earth. Everything that Kakudmi had and owned, his friends and family, his sons and wife, his armies and treasures, had vanished with the time that had passed.

Hindu philosophy was familiar with the concept that time is relative and many passages on the Vedic scriptures continuously point out that the cosmic time of the gods is different than the time on earth.

ONE CHATUR-YUGA IS EQUIVALENT TO 4,320,000 HUMAN YEARS

Were King Kakudmi and his daughter two unwitting time travelers? What they thought were just minutes in front god Brahma, millennia had taken place at home. When they came back, they did so to a vastly different place.

Wormholes, although theoretical, are ‘tunnels’ or shortcuts predicted by Einstein’s theory of relativity that link two places in space-time — as visualized above — where negative energy pulls space and time into the mouth of a tunnel, emerging in another time or place in the universe, or possibly even another universe. Wormholes remain hypothetical but have been used in science fiction and films as conduits for time travel, for example as found in the movie Time Bandits (1981), where their locations are shown on a celestial map. Notice the circle within a circle on the map. It is almost as though you are above looking top down into an Einstein-Rosen Bridge.

Today, we so often think of time as an arrow moving in one direction, with a beginning, middle and end. But it is interesting to look at different cultures and how they view time. Their perceptions help us look at time, and the idea of time travel, a little bit differently.

“It is widely believed that spacetime must be both orientable and time-orientable. Arguments are that there is no evidence of a lack of orientability and that a nonorientable spacetime would be incompatible with the observed violations of P (parity) and T (time reversal invariance).”

NOTE: The Vishnu Purana and the Garga Samhita narrate the same tale of Revati albeit with some variation, so too as found in “THE SEVENTH BOOK, Chapter VIII, On the King Revata and the Solar Dynasty” of the Devi Bhagavata Purana.

https://sacred-texts.com/hin/db/bk07ch08.htm

• All of propagation of light (I say again)

Bradley found annual aberration on gamma star : Eltanin. In books, picture of ellipse is shown. However, this ellipse must be warped because of secular aberration (not only Eltanin). With this warp, the motion of solar system relative to aether must be clarified.

Light emitted from a source in outer space will follow the emission theory. But for a few seconds only. The corner cube settled on the surface of the moon proves this.

The motion of an observer relative to light waves is the same as the motion of an observer relative to sound waves. Light waves are light waves. An observer is an observer. And everything follows Galilean transformation.

The speed of light in medium is c/n. The MM experiment (done in air) is nonsense.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury (the truth)

In Mercury (in terms of Mercury’s size), the non-uniformity of the Sun’s gravity may be the main cause of perihelion shift. In artificial satellites, the effects of non-uniformity of the Earth’s gravity (the position of the center of mass and the center of gravity are different) are also mentioned.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury (rewritten)

Mercury is moving on the revolution orbit. The sun’s gravity is equal to the centrifugal force. Because the two are action and reaction. Following are some explanations. Centrifugal force follows Mercury’s mass. But in addition, gravity is affected by the size of Mercury (and acting position of gravity is different). These are caused by the non-uniformity of gravity (in the space occupied by Mercury). And after perihelion passage, orbit will be pulled inward (from its original orbit).

High tide level twice a day is the same. Gravity and centrifugal force caused by the moon will be action and reaction. Centrifugal force is not fictitious.

• Moon and earth (an essay)

In an illustration, the moon and the earth are drawn side by side. Because of the lunar attractive force, seawater is bulged in the left and right edges of the round earth. The bulge is symmetrical. Two resultant forces are acting at two edges (to the opposite direction). Two resultant forces each are composed of the lunar attractive force and the centrifugal force caused by earth’s orbital motion (moves around the common center of gravity with the moon). Two resultant forces will be equal strength. This will explain that the level of high tides twice a day are generally the same.

Also, the lunar attractive force acting on the earth’s center of gravity (not the center of mass) and the centrifugal force resulting from its orbital motion (mentioned above) will be action-reaction and will be equal.

P.S. Is action-reaction in the sky exactly equal ?

• Moon and earth (rewritten again)

Allow me to rewrite again.

Moon and earth are supposed to be two-body problem. Also it is supposed that the common center of gravity of moon and earth is situated outside the earth. And the orbit of earth is a perfect circle, and earth is a perfect sphere. In the illustration, the surface of earth closest to moon is A and the surface farthest from moon is B. At the two points A and B, the strength of resultant forces of moon’s gravity and centrifugal force (of earth) will be the same (act to opposite directions). Otherwise, earth cannot stay on orbit of perfect circle. This will explain that the level of high tide twice a day are the same.

• Moon and earth (an essay)

As moon passes overhead, high tide (one of two high tides a day) will come after a short delay. But why ? Why is seawater with a low specific gravity bulged ? Newton imagined that moon will continue falling. Earth will continue falling also. And seawater will cotinue falling too. So, it doesn’t matter how specific gravity is.

• Pelihelion shift of Mercury (an essay)

Some wide binaries are separated by one light years. And many wide binaries are at most (as much as) by 1000 au. These motion will be treated as mass points (a point). On the other hand, many close binaries are detected. What are physicists who repeat nonsense on perihelion shift of Mercury ?

• Moon and earth (an essay)

Moon and earth are supposed to be two-body problem. In the illustration, the surface of earth closest to moon is A and the surface farthest from moon is B. At the two points A and B, the strength of resultant forces of moon’s gravity and centrifugal force (of earth) will be the same (act to opposite directions). It will be proved by the sameness of high tides.

Also it will be proved by stability of orbits of each body.

• Moon and earth (an essay)

Moon and earth are supposed to be two-body problem. Also supposed that common center of gravity of the two is outside of earth : the orbit of earth is perfect circle : and earth is a perfefct sphere. The strength of moon’s attractive force acting on earth and centrifugal force due to revolution of earth are equal in total (as action reaction : as centrifugal force and centrepital force).

The points on the surface of earth closest to moon is A and the surface farthest from moon is B. It will mean that the forces acting on the two points AB must be offset. It will explaine that level of high tides twice a day is the same.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury (again)

The main forces acting on Mercury are attractive force of sun and centrifugal force only. Hemisphere of Mercury facing sun is supposed to be A and the other hemisphere is B. The attractive force of the sun acting on the two will be A>B, and the centrifugal force will be B>A. From the look of the perihelion shift, the attractive force acting on Mercury as a whole will be slightly stronger.

• Perihelion shift of Mercury (an essay)

A celestial body called Vulcan is revolving on orbit of Mercury. It has the same mass and revolution cycle as Mercury. And diameter is twohold (the both stars are uniform in density). Since the sun’s gravitational field is non-uniform, the sun’s gravity acting on both stars will be slightly larger in Vulcan and smaller in Mercury. The value of perihelion shift also likely will be similar. In short, the size of the celestial body (close to the gravitational source like Mercury) will be the main reason for the perihelion shift.

Imagine a cone with evenly spaced concentric circles on its surface. The non-uniformity of gravity will be exponential non-uniformity.

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• Perihelion shift of Mercury (an essay)

On planets, it is said that centrifugal force caused by orbital motion is balanced with attractive force of sun (and the action and reaction are equal). On Mercury, it will stand up also. But exactly ? Solar wind or some other solar-derived substances seem to go down slightly speed of orbital motion of Mercury (one of perturbation ?). If so, centrifugal force will be reduced accordingly. On the other hand, attractive force of sun will not be affected at all. This may be the main reason for the perihelion shift of Mercury.

• Propagation of gravity

The propagation of gravity will be done in an instant. For this, here are two reasons. One reason is that two-body problem, many-body problem are true for celestial bodies. The other reason is that the whole solar system is in an uniform linear motion and planets are in elliptical revolution on their revolution planes.

• Inertial force, centrifugal force, centripetal force (an essay)

Between accelerated motion and non-accelerated motion (uniform linear motion), there is an immovable distinction. And accelerated motion is always accompanied by an inertial force (corresponding to the vector of motion). These are based on the existence of absolute rest frame.

A motion of a disk rotating is an acceleration motion. And the disk is accompanied by an inertial force called centrifugal force. It is said that centrifugal force depends on the situation of observer. But the physical phenomenon (centrifugal force) cannot be influenced by observers. Centrifugal force will show the same value to everyone.

The wiki defines centripetal force as “the force that moves an object in a curved motion”. But is that the correct definition? Is mere external force centripetal force also? Isn’t tension, tensile stress, gravity, etc. all the same? Is there any commonalities (grouped together)?

• Centrifugal force : reconsidering

Two mass points a and b (with large difference of mass) are in motion of two-body problem (a large, b small). One picture is in outer space, and the knot of a,b is gravity (b is in a circular motion). The other picture is on a plane (no friction), and the knot is tension of a string (the mass of the string is zero). In the two pictures, the centrifugal force of b is a vector that is on the extension line of a,b. The reaction is gravity in one picture and tension of the string in the other picture. Where and how is the centripetal force?

Tension of the string between a and b is constant. Gravity is not constant.